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GLOSSARY FOREWORD/DATABASE LINKS

The following Wine-grape Glossary, containing a clickable INDEX listing and other clickable internal text links, is designed to aid individuals interested in knowing something about the fruit that is transformed into his or her favorite wine. It can be downloaded in either its ascii or hypertext format by the reader for free distribution among individuals. The only restriction is the right of authorship credit which should be retained on all copies made. The glossary file, (approx. 445 Kb), will translate into about 220 pages of hardcopy text.

Because the potential scope is so huge only the more commonly grown or known popular grape-names are referenced. Written by a non-specialist for the benefit of non-specialists it is hoped that inaccurate taxonomy references will be overlooked, although a strong effort is made to limit the number of errors. Seekers of latin-style botanical names, hybrid-grape numberings, vine ampelographic descriptions etc. are advised to refer to an appropriate resource. Occasionally encountered alias lesser names are highlighted in accessed text but not "jumpably" link-referenced because they are not regarded as being important. Also, in order to allow conformity to current international standards and successful searches, an attempt has been made to use variety name spelling emulating that found in the Geilweilerhof database mentioned below (eg. the use of variety name suffixes such as "O.P" and "S.P" meaning "Open Pollinated" and "Self Pollinated" respectively) - although changes and modifications may be made from time to time as new facts emerge in the literature.

A recently (1996) published book, "Jancis Robinson's Guide to Wine Grapes", lists over 800 grapenames and to a degree renders this glossary obsolescent. However, because her book omits most American hybrid varieties and her listing concentrates on european vinifera or crosses, readers may still find the following file helpful and of some value.

Additionally a U.S. Dept. of Agriculture database search page can be accessed via the link URL:

Search page for Grape Cultivars

A Database page of interest to biologists concerned with genetic research on grapevines is now available. The URL link is as follows:

Geilweilerhof International Collection Database (De)

New readers should be aware that their protocol system requires "frames" compatibility for best results with this technical resource.

Readers contemplating planting their own vines may find the Grape Diseases page at UC Davis of interest. It is a comprehensive database that includes disease example images. It can be browsed via the link URL:

Pest Management Guidelines page at UC Davis

NB: The Netscape/I.E menu bar "Edit" drop-down menu "Find in page" item offers rapid access to keywords throughout the glossary text (e.g; "Pierce's" for varieties resistant to Pierce's Disease).

Some comments on soil and vine preparation also appear near the end of this glossary (see "General Note on Grapevine Cultivation" etc).

Cool climate dwellers should find the grape recommendations for New York State of interest. The Geneva Research Station of Cornell University lists their evaluations at the link URL:

Grape Variety Planting Evaluations for New York State

Readers interested in Rootstocks can find an informative article about them at the link URL:

Univ. Oregon Phylloxera Resistant Rootstocks/Info. Listing


INTRODUCTION

Admirers of wine know that the type of grape from which wines are fermented will in large part determine the basic fruit-flavor characteristics, both aroma and taste, of the final product. As a result, wines of high reputation are often regarded as associated with a single grape variety, often referred to as a "varietal", especially in the english-speaking world.

Because of this, such grape-names as Cabernet Sauvignon for red Bordeaux, Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc for Sauternes, Pinot Noir for red Burgundy and Chardonnay for white Burgundy, (etc), are now embedded in the "wine-speak" language. However these names can be misleading because they imply a precision that in reality is not present.

An example is that there is no such thing as "the" Pinot Noir. In fact accuracy demands that it be referred to as "a" Pinot Noir because the name does not belong to a unique vine species but to what the french grower calls a "cépage", that is, a growth defined as a group of closely related but not quite identical vine species sharing the same genetic background. These different strains of Pinot Noir are technically known as "clones", usually individually identified by adding a secondary name that refers to a special characteristic, place name or clone developer etc. It has been estimated that there are a minimum of forty-seven Pinot Noir clone versions currently, (1996), planted in the vineyards of Burgundy and nearby districts in France alone - resulting in a great variation of wine quality and aging ability etc. The same sort of situation applies to many other strains of the "cépages nobles", or "noble varieties", such as the Riesling and others.

Another example is the assumption, commonly made, that the highly regarded red Bordeaux wines are made entirely from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape. In fact many of the famous "great crus" vineyards in Pomerol and St.Émilion contain none at all. It is mainly grown in the Médoc and Graves subdistricts and even there is only one of several vine varieties, recent figures showing that fully 40% of the grapes grown consist of Merlot. Normally the wine made from Cabernet Sauvignon is blended with wines made from such distantly related grapes as the Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot and others.

Knowing the above facts, the following information should be used with care. Many of the grape names will be found to be connected in some way and are cross callable. When they are not it is usually for reasons of brevity, or lack of in-depth knowledge, because it would not serve any useful purpose to pursue the details about thousands of clones worldwide.


CLASSIC VINIFERA VARIETIES AND SYNONYMS

Clickable INDEX to Classic Vinifera Varieties and Synonyms

[A] Aubaine - Auvernat - Auvernat Noir

[B] Beaunois - Bigney - Black St. Peter - Blanc Doux - Blauburgunder - Blauer Klevner - Boal - Bordo - Bouchet - Bouchy - Breton

[C] Cabernet Franc - Cabernet Sauvignon - Carmenet - Chardonnay - Chenin Blanc - Chevrier - Chiavennasca - Columbier - Coraillod - Crabutet Noir

[E] Epinette Blanche

[F] Feinburgunder - [G] Gentil Rose Aromatique - Gewürztraminer - Green Grape - Gros Bouchet

[H] Hunter (River) Riesling

[J] (Johannisberg) Riesling

[M] Malaga - Merlot - Morillon - Muscat - Muscat Blanc à Petit Grains - Muskat-Sylvaner

[N] Nebbiolo - Noirien

[O] Orange Muscat

[P] Petit Cabernet - Petite Sainte-Marie - Petite Vidure - Picutener - Pugnet - Pineau de la Loire - Pinot Blanco - Pinot Chardonnay - Pinot Nero - Pinot Noir - Plavac Mali - Primitivo

[R] Red Traminer - Rheinriesling - Rhine Riesling - Riesling - Riesling Renano

[S] Sauvignon Blanc - Sauvignon Gris - Sauvignon Noir - Sauvignon Jaune - Sauvignon Rose - Schwartz Klevner - Semillion - Sémillon - Shiraz - Spanna - Spätburgunder - Steen - Syrah

[T] Traminer Musque - Traminer Rot

[U] Uva Francese

[V] Veron - Vert Dore - Vidure - Vranac

[W] White Pinot - Weisser Clevner - Weisser Riesling - White Riesling

[Z] Zinfandel


VARIETY NAME

BLACK ST. PETER: Thought to be the early 19th century Californian name for the variety subsequently known as Zinfandel. (See below).

BLAUBURGUNDER: Clone of Pinot Noir widely grown in Germany and Austria. Also known as Spätburgunder in Austria.

CABERNET FRANC: Recently - (4-97) - discovered to be one of the parent grape varieties that gave rise to the Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar. Mainly found in cooler, damper climatic conditions than its offspring. Shows moderately vigorous growth and earlier wood and crop maturation than Cabernet Sauvignon. Recommended for grafting to the 3309 rootstock in New York state where it has shown good winter hardiness. Ohio researchers are currently (1999) testing the 1616 and 18-815 rootstocks. Widely grown in the Loire region where it is known as the Breton and in large areas of southwest France where it is sometimes known as Bouchy or Bouchet. Other french synonym names are Carmenet, Gros Bouchet, Grosse Vidure and Veron. In N.E Italy the variety is known as the Bordo winegrape. Bordeaux wines commonly contain a blend of both Cabernet varietal wines, a practice increasingly being followed in California and elsewhere. Wine from these grapes has a deep purple color, when young, with a herbaceous aroma. Just like Cabernet Sauvignon, North American growth is mainly confined to the cooler coastal regions; Long Island (N.Y.) and the Pacific Northwest showing signs of being very hospitable. New Zealand has also proved to be a potential good home.

CABERNET SAUVIGNON: A "noble" grape famous as one of the main varieties, along with Merlot, Cabernet Franc and others used to create the magnificent french Bordeaux region blended red wines. This variety has several alias names such as Petit Cabernet, Petite Vidure and Vidure. (The latter name is the one used by those who subscribed to the now dubious theory that it was the original vine from which the cépage originated). Where grown in Italy it is sometimes referred to as the Uva Francese. Although recorded as present in the Bordeaux region since at least the 17th century, parental provenance has always been unsure. Recent research, (Meredith and Bowers, "Nature Genetics Journal" 5-97), has unexpectedly discovered that the original parents of this variety were Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc, an astounding reversal of previous assumptions. A "hard" grape, it helps make wines of classic breed, intensity and complexity that often need to bottle-age for at least 5-10 years in order to reach peak flavor condition. The most successful plantings in North America are mainly on Long Island (N.Y.) and the cooler regions of northern California. The vine is quite cold-hardy, although it acclimates slowly and can be injured by cold freezes in December and early January. In New York state the recommended rootstock graft is 3309. It has a late bud break, is relatively resistant to cracking and bunch rots, has vigorous growth and ripens in late October. In the warmer regions of California, grapes made into a single varietal wine will often produce higher than optimum levels of alcohol due to high sugar content and, conversely, lower than optimum acid levels in most years and so may tend to age less successfully than the blended french versions. Aromas and flavors include: Black-currant, blackberry, mint (etc). In the last decades of the twentieth century many other countries have seen their regions develop into prime producers - (e.g: Argentina, Chile, Italy and New Zealand).

CHARDONNAY: (aka Feinburgunder and Morillon in Austria). This variety is the best-known white-wine producer grown in France and known to be one of the recently determined (1999) 16 direct descendants of the Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc ancient crossing. Is occasionally misleadingly known as Pinot Chardonnay in the Mâcon and Chablis regions, an invented synonym name for the benefit of Anglo/American consumers reportedly derived from an earlier period when the variety was mistakenly (?) considered to be a white mutation of Pinot Noir. Other local names in the various regions of France include the aliases Aubaine, Auvernat, Beaunois, Epinette Blanche, Petite Sainte-Marie and Weisser Clevner etc. The Chardonnay vine is widely planted in the Burgundy and Chablis regions. Clone variety numbers commonly used include 76, 95, 124 and 548, plus some others, grafted to suitable calcium/lime tolerant, moderately vigorous rootstocks such as 41B or 161-49C. There, as in other cool climate regions, the wine made from it is often aged in small oak barrels to produce strong flavors and aromas. Possessing a fruity character (e.g: Apple, lemon, citrus) subsequent barrel-influenced flavors include "oak", "vanilla", and malolactic fermentation imparted "creamy- buttery" components. Hugely successful in many regions of the world due to its mid-season ripening (late September to early October) and versatility. Quite cold-hardy although early to bud and susceptible to bunch rots, yet retains fruit crispness in warmer growing years. Australia and New Zealand have succeeded in producing world-class wines in recent years, from selected clones of this variety, by using cold fermentation methods that result in a desired "flinty" taste in the dry versions. Currently popular clones in New Zealand include the heavy cropping clone #'s 4 and 5. Others include the "Mendoza" and #6 for heavy fruit set. Clone #15, a shyer bearer than #6, has produced highly rated wines in most regions.

CHENIN BLANC: A widely grown white-wine producing variety, known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France and under the alias name White Pinot (Pinot Blanco) elsewhere in the world. Often made in a number of styles with or without some residual sugar. It is the favored grape of the Anjou region of France and, although naturally a hard, acidic grape slow to mature, is made into fine sweet wines that age well for a least ten years in the bottle. In the U.S. the grape all too often ends up in the generic jug wines of bulk producers as acidity enhancer for otherwise flabby high sugar/alcohol blends.

FEINBURGUNDER: Synonym name for the Chardonnay variety in Germany and the regions of Vienna and Burgenland of Austria. (See also Morillon below).

GEWÜRZTRAMINER: ("geh-verts-tram-in-er"). A clone of the parent Traminer variety. Widely grown, having literally dozens of synonym names in various countries including Traminer Rot. Best known as one of the mainstay grape varieties for which the french Alsace region is famous the popular Gewürztraminer produces white wines with a strong floral aroma and lychee nut-like flavor. It is often regarded as somewhat similar in style to the (Johannisberg) Riesling - (below) - when vinified as slightly sweet yet tart. Occasionally it is made into a "botrytized" late harvest dessert style wine. Does well in the cooler coastal regions of Western U.S. - (where it ripens in late September) - Australia and New Zealand. In Australia the variety is also known under several alias names. Among these are Traminer Musque, Gentil Rose Aromique and Red Traminer. Cool climate growers should be aware that, in addition to quite large successful plantings of the above variety, a well-regarded cross named Traminette, developed by Cornell University in the U.S.A over the last 30 years, is currently very successfully cultivated on small commercial acreages in the Finger Lakes region of New York State and several other cool northern regions of the USA.

(JOHANNISBERG) RIESLING: (aka White Riesling in New York state (USA), Ontario and British Columbia (Canada), Riesling in Germany, Rheinriesling in Austria, Riesling Renano in Italy and Rhine Riesling in Australia). A white-wine producer variety widely grown along the Rhine river and tributaries - (e.g: Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Mosel, Nahe regions etc.) - in Germany and also in other cool temperate regions of Europe. It is also grown in N. America, where it can produce a flowery, fruity dry wine with high acid and low alcohol not unlike the german "Kabinett" version or a semi-dry style with some residual sugar similar to the german "Spätlese" version. If infected with appropriate amounts of "botrytis", it can make outstanding late-harvest wines - (e.g: comparable to the german "Auslese" series). The Finger Lakes region of New York state in the U.S. and the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada produce excellent dry versions in the Mosel and Alsation styles in addition to consistent freezing temperature extracted juice made into "ice-wine", (aka "eiswein"). Successful clones in New York include the Neustadt selected Clone 90 (recommended by the Frank winery), Clone 198, Clone 239 of the Mosel (also recommended for the Niagara region) and Clone 356 from Geisenheim. Growers in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada, have found that the Weiss 21-B clone gives a very good Upper Mosel style of wine with racy acidity and delicate but firm fruit. Clone 239 gives a fruitier, more Rhine-like wine than the Weiss. Growers on the North-West coast of N. America, presumably using U.C Davis selected clones, seem to creat the richer, earthier Rheinhessen taste in many versions, as do the cooler regions of California. Australia now produces excellent versions of the dry, crisp Alsation-style, as well as fruitier semi-sweet Mosel-type wines, as has New Zealand in recent years. A recent report (Regner, F., et al., Wein-Wissenshaft, 53(3), 114-18, 1998) has shown that this variety, along with Elbling, and Silvaner, are derived from certain ancient crossings of the even more ancient Heunisch (Weiss) and Frankisch varieties now considered to be the progenitors of all our modern winegrapes; the core cultivar of the former variety being identical to Gouais Blanc.

MERLOT: Classic grape widely grown in the Bordeaux region of France and elsewhere. The red wine bears a resemblance to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, with which it is sometimes blended, but is usually not so intense, with softer tannins. Matures earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon, with mid-late ripening. Moderate cold-hardiness. In California it is a popular varietal on its own and also as a percentage constituent of the red wine blend resembling Bordeaux claret called "Meritage". It does extremely well in the state of Washington and shows great promise on Long Island, N.Y. Results in the Finger Lakes region of N.Y., where it ripens in early October, have been mixed due its relative lack of cold-hardiness and the fruit subject to bunch rots. Recently some have claimed that many of the labeled Chilean varietal wines are actually of the Carmenère variety. Other countries such as Argentina and New Zealand also seem to have a suitable climate for this variety. The grape has many alias names such as Petit Merle, Vitraille, Crabutet Noir and Bigney.

MORILLON: Synonym name for the Chardonnay grape in the Austrian region of Styria. (See also Feinburgunder above).

MUSCAT: Another "cépage" family of clone varieties, making both red and white wines. Most are of the muscat type, having the unique aromatic character commonly associated with muscat wines. These include the Muscat Blanc, (a.k.a Muscadel, Moscato di Canelli), all alias names for the premier cépage varietal Muscat Blanc à Petit Grains. These clones are mostly used for making medium-sweet and dessert style table or fortified wines. An example of these is "Constantia", a centuries-old wine blend still made in South Africa from the Orange Muscat grape, a darker skinned mutation of the Muscat Frontignan clone, (the latter also known as the Brown Frontignac in Australia), and wine made from the Pontac, a red-wine grape translocated from south-west France. Small acreages of Orange Muscat in the Central Valley of California allow a local variation of this wine to be made by at least one producer, a situation that also occurs in Australia. Hot climate producers of sparkling wines often use the various Muscat grape clones to create wines in the style of Italian Spumante. Lesser regarded clones of the cépage include Muscat of Alexandria and others.

MUSCAT BLANC À PETIT GRAINS: (See Muscat above).

NEBBIOLO: (has synonym names of Spanna in the northern hills, Picutener and Pugnet in N.W. Piedmont and as Chiavennasca grape in Lombardy). Grape responsible for the long-lived, fine red wines of the Piedmont region of Italy. The role of honor includes traditionally vinified "Barolo", "Gattinara", "Barbaresco" and "Ghemme"; all huge, tannic wines that at their best can take decades to mature.

ORANGE MUSCAT: (See Muscat above).

PINEAU DE LA LOIRE: Alternate name for Chenin Blanc. (See above).

PINOT CHARDONNAY: Rarely used regional synonym name for the Chardonnay variety. (See above).

PINOT NOIR: The premier grape "cépage" of the Burgundy region of France, producing a red wine that is lighter in color than the Bordeaux reds (such as the Cabernet's or Merlot). Cépage clones of this variety have many alias names such as Auvernat Noir, Blauer Klevner, Coraillod, Noirien, Schwartz Klevner, Vert Dore, and even plain numbers. It has proved to be a capriciously acting and difficult grape for N. American wineries, best results being obtained in cool, fog-liable regions such as the Carneros region of northern California. Choice of a suitable clone version is critical, as is careful vineyard pruning technique and planting density. The importance of clone version is amply demonstrated with the recommendation of the "Wadensville" (Wädenswil) and "Mariafelder" (Klevner Mariafeld) clones, the latter ripening in mid-October, for use in the Finger Lakes region of New York State where they have consistently produced quality wines despite not being as cold-hardy as some other clones. Oregon growers seem to have a preference for the "UCD5 (Pommard)" clone. The worlds best "quality" wines are reputed to result from a mixing of suitable clones; a common practice in Burgundy, France, where numbers 667, 777 and 828 appear to be currently favored in addition to the reliable 114 and 115 when grafted to suitably limestone tolerant, moderately vigorous rootstocks such as Fercal and 161-49C. Cherished aromas and flavors often detected in varietal wines include cherry, mint, raspberry, truffles and the ubiquitous gamey odor in new wines often referred to as "animalé" by the french winemaker. German growers know this grape under several alias names, such as Spätburgunder. In Italy the variety is known as Pinot Nero. Growers in New Zealand are reported to use the AM 10/5, Bachtobel and UDC5 (Pommard) clones as dominant choices. The mutant clone variety known as Pinot Meunier is widely planted around the world under several alias names and is used to produce the main blending wine for so-called "Blanc de Noir" sparkling wines. In California the cépage has often been erroneously divided into various Gamay varieties until recent times. A new study (Meredith, Bowers et al, Science 9/99) has determined that many of the varieties for which Burgundy is justly famous, such as Chardonnay, Gamay Noir etc, all trace back to a cross that occurred between this variety and Gouais Blanc.

RIESLING: Also known as the Weisser Riesling. Premier white wine grape of Germany and Alsace, known as Rheinriesling in Austria and Riesling Renano in Northern Italy. (See (Johannisberg) Riesling above).

RHEINRIESLING: Austrian name for the Riesling grape of Germany. (See above).

RHINE RIESLING: Australian name for the Riesling grape of Germany. (See above).

SAUVIGNON BLANC: Classic white-wine producer variety commonly planted in the Bordeaux and eastern Loire regions of France. Shows vigorous growth and is late maturing. Members of the cépage are now thought to be descendants of the ancient Fié variety once common in the Loire region of France. The sauvignon cépage apparently derives the latter part of its name from the color of its skin. Other members include the recent - (4-97) - genetic parental link to Cabernet Sauvignon and other mutations known as the Sauvignon Noir, Sauvignon Jaune and Sauvignon Rose. The last named grape is also known as Sauvignon Gris. In the Styria region of Austria the variety is occasionally referred to as the Muskat-Sylvaner. All versions of the cépage show a tendency towards a grassy, herbaceous flavor in the grapewine, often referred to as "gooseberry" by professional tasters, when the grapes are grown in temperate regions. In warmer regions, the flavors and aromas tend to be more citruslike, (e.g: grapefruit or pear), plus the characteristic "earthy" taste. New Zealand has had much success with the grape in recent years.

SÉMILLON: Classic grape widely grown in the Bordeaux region of France and elsewhere. This grape variety has a distinct fig-like character. In France, Australia and increasingly in California it is often blended with Sauvignon Blanc to cut some of the strong "gooseberry" flavor of the latter grape and create better balance. Wineries in many countries also use the grape to create dry single-varietal white wines. Australian grapes, particularly those grown in the Hunter Valley region where the fruit has also been historically known as Hunter (River) Riesling, are famous for producing dry and sweet wines from this varietal that will age admirably for 20 to 30 years. Another alias name used for this variety is Boal/Bual in its incarnation as one of at least four varieties using the same name for use in fortified wines on the island of Madeira. Back in France, it has the synonym names Chevrier, Columbier, Malaga and Blanc Doux. Those grown in South Africa, where the grape is known as the Green Grape and also as Semillion, have not fared so well in popular favor and are not extensively planted at present. When infected by the "noble rot" fungi, (Botrytis cineria), it can be used to produce first-class sweet white wines such as those of the french Sauternes.

SHIRAZ: Alternate name for the french Syrah clone grape grown in Australia and responsible for very big red wines that are not quite as intense in flavor as the french Rhone versions. In the past it was also known under the alias name Hermitage.

SPANNA: Alternate local name for the Nebbiolo grape grown in the Piedmont district of Vercelli in Italy.

SPÄTBURGUNDER: (see Blauburgunder above).

STEEN: (see Chenin Blanc above).

SYRAH: A grape variety associated with the Rhone Valley region of France, famous for creating "Hermitage" red wine. In southern France some regard the grape as taking two forms, the Grosse Syrah and Petite Syrah, distinguished only by berry size. Experts reject this distinction but it has in the past led some wine producers in North and South America to mistake California vineyard plantings of Petite Sirah, which produces a very dark red and tannic wine judged simple in comparison to the true Rhone Syrah, as the latter grape. DNA analysis has now shown (Meredith C.P., et al., "Am. J. Enol. Vitic." 50(3): 236-42 1999) there is in fact a probable cross-variety relationship. In the cooler regions of Australia a (presumed) clone of the Rhone variety, once known as the Scyras, is grown very successfully and now known as Shiraz. In the state of California, depending on location, vintage or fermentation technique, the grape is used to either produce a spicy, complex wine or a simple wine. Considerable acreage is grown in South Africa, and also in Argentina where it has historically been called the Balsamina grape until the late 1960's.

WEISSER RIESLING: South African, (and german), name for the true Riesling grape of Germany. Also called the White Riesling. It is important to note that the Cape Riesling, aka Paarl or South African Riesling, is actually the Crouchen grape that originated in the Pyrenees region of France and was relocated to South Africa where it can be legally sold under the name "Riesling".

WHITE RIESLING: Alias name for the (Johannisberg) Riesling grape. Both names are used, sometimes in the same region, in the USA, Canada and elsewhere.

ZINFANDEL: An important grape variety, also thought to be the variety once known as Black St. Peter in early 19th century California lore, currently grown in California and used to produce robust red wine as well as very popular "blush wines" called "white Zinfandel". The oldest vines found in the Dry Creek and Amador regions are notable for their ability to produce superior juice; eg. the "Bevill-Mazzoni" clone from the Dry Creek appellation was recently reported (7/2000) as yielding excellent results even as a young vine. Zinfandel is noted for the fruit-laden, berry-like aroma and prickly taste characteristics in its red version and pleasant strawberry reminders when made into a "blush" wine. While its origins are not clear it has been positively identified, via DNA analysis at UC Davis (California), as the Primitivo (di Gioia), a variety grown in Apulia, southern Italy. According to an Italian report of 1996 the latter variety may have a relationship to members of the Vranac variety cépage grown in Montenegro, the state that, combined with Serbia, constitutes what remains of the former Yugoslavia. Other contenders were certain mutated members of the Mali Plavac, (a.k.a Plavac Mali), cépage varieties which are mainly grown in the coastal area known as Dalmatia, a province of Croatia recently a part of the former Yugoslavia and located just across the Adriatic sea from the shores of Italian Apulia. Research is presently (7/98) underway to explore possible relationships. The origin of the grapename "Zinfandel" in California is currently not known but is thought by some to be a corruption of Zierfandler, a completely unrelated white variety still grown in the Balkan region of Europe. It has been noted that mid-19th century catalogs mention a red (ie. "roter") mutation of that variety. A plausible hypothesis is that a naming error arose due to attribution and shipping mistakes made during unreliable early-19th century transport and handling to New World destinations.

End of Classic Vinifera Varieties and Synonyms Text.


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LESSER/CROSSED EUROPEAN VINIFERA VARIETIES

Clickable INDEX for Lesser/Crossed European Vinifera Varieties

[A] Abbondosa - Abbuoto - Aboto - Abouriou - Achiappapalmento - Acolon - Afus Ali - Agianniotiko - Agiorgitiko - Aglianico - Agliatica - Agria - Aidani - Airen - Aladasturi - Albalonga - Albana - Albany Surprise - Albariño - Albarola - Albillo - Albillo Krimskii - Alcañón - Aleatico - Alexandreuli - Alexandrian Moschato - Alfrocheiro - Alphonse Lavalee - Alicante - Alicante Bouschet - Alicante Ganzin - Aligoté - Aligoté Doré - Aligoté Vert - Altesse - Altruga - Alvarinho - Alzey S. 88 - Alzey S. 3983 - Alzey 7957 - Amigne - Amorgiano - Amurskiy - Ancellotta - Ansonica - Antibois - Aragonez - Aramon - Arbois - Argaman - Argossa - Aribona - Arinto - Arnad Montjovet - Arneis - Arquitano - Arrufiac - Arnsburger - Arvine - Asprinio Bianco - Assyrtiko - Asuretuli (Shavi) - Athiri - Aubin Blanc - Aubin Vert - Aubun - Aucarot - Aunis - Auxerrois - Auxerrois Blanc - Auxerrois Gris - Avanà - Avello - Avola - Axina - Azal (Branco)

[B] Babeasca Neagra - Bacchus - Bachet Noir - Badacsony 7 - Baga - Balada - Barbarossa - Barbaroux - Barbera - Barbesina - Baresana - Baroque - Bassanino - Bastardo - Bazaleturi - Batiki - Baxter's Sherry - Beaunoir - Beichun - Bellone - Bergeron - Berlinka - Bernarde - Biancame - Bianco d'Allesano - Bianco di Nizza - Bianco di Valdigna - Biancolella - Biancone - Bical - Bikavar 8 - Biturica - Black Cluster - Black Corinth - Black Hamburg - Black Portugal - Black Prince - Black Riesling - Blanc d'Euvizin - Blanc de Morgex - Blanc du Valdigne - Blanchette - Blanquette - Blauer Weinsberger - Blaufränkisch - Blau Portugieser - Blue Imperial - Boal - Bobal - Bombino Bianco - Bombino Nero - Bonamico - Bonarda - Bonarda (Piemontese) - Bonarda Novarese - Bondola - Bonvedro - Bonvino Nero - Bordo - Boskokisi - Bosco - Bouchet - Bouchy - Bouquettraube - Bourboulenc - Bouvier - Bovale Piccolo - Bovale Sardo - Brachetto - Braquet - Braucol - Breidecker - Breton - Breval - Brocol - Brown Frontignac - Brown Muscat - Brugnola - Brunello - Bual - Bukettraube - Burger - Burgundy - Buzzetto

[C] Cabernet Cubin - Cabernet Franc - Cabernet Dorio - Cabernet Dorsa - Cabernet Gros - Cabernet Mitos - Cabernet Pfeffer - Cabernet Severnyi - Caccione Nero - Cagnina - Calabrese - Calcatella - Calitor - Callet - Camarèse - Canaiolo (Nero) - Canaiolo Romano - Canina (Nera) - Caninu - Cannonau - Cape Riesling - Carignan - Carignane - Carina - Carinena - Carmenère - Carmina - Carmine - Carnelian - Carola - Carricante - Castelão Francês - Catanese Bianco - Catarrato Bianco - Cecubo - Celar - Cencibel - Cenicero - Centurion - Cep Gris - Cerceal - Cesanese - Cesar - César - Chalosse - Champagne - Chaouch Blanc - Charbono - Charbonneau - Charmont - Chasan - Chasselas - Chasselas Doré - Chasselas Musque - Chasselas Raisin de Palestine - Chasselas Rose - Chauché Gris - Chenel - Chenin Noir - Chichvi - Chinuri - Chkhaveri - Ciliegiolo - Cinsault - Cinsaut - Cividin Bianco - Cividino - Clairette - Clevner - Clare Riesling - Coda di Volpe - Codega - Colombard - Colorino - Cometta - Completer - Comtessa - Corbeau Noir - Cornalin - Cortese - Corvina - Costiola - Côt - Counoise - Courbu - Courtiller Musque - Crato Branco - Criolla Chica - Criolla Grande - Croatina - Crouchen - Cserszegi Fuszeres

[D] Dalniewostoznyd Ramning - Deckrot - Debina - Dimiat - Dindarella - Dinka - Diolinoir - Dolcetto - Doña Blanco - Doña Branca - Doradillo - Dornfelder - Douce Noir - Dr. Hogg - Dunkelfelder - Duras - Durella - Durello - Dureza - Durif - Durize - Dvietes 4-2-108 - Dzvelshava

[E] Early Burgundy - Early Loon - Ehrenfelser - Elbling - Elbling Schwarz - Ellanico - Ellenico - Emerald Riesling - Erbaluce - Ermitage - Esgana (Cão) - Espadeiro - Ezerjó

[F] Faber - Färbertraube - Falanghina - False Carignan - Favorito - Fegeri - Feher Dinka - Feher Kadarka - Fendant - Fer - Fernão Pires - Feteasca Alba - Feteasca Neagra - Feteasca Regala - Fetiaska - Fiano - Fié - Findling - Fior d'Arancio - Fogoneu - Fogoneu Francés - Folle Blanche - Folle Noire - Forastera - Forcallat - Forta - Fortana - Fra Germano - Fragola - Francavilla - Francois Noir - Frankenthaler - Frankisch - Freiburger - Freisa - Freisamer - (French) Colombard - Fromentau - Fromentot - Frontignac - Früburgunder - Fruheburgunder - Frueher Malingre - Früroter Veltliner - F.S 4-201-3 - Fumin - Furmint

[G] Gaglioppo - Gamaret - Gamay - Gamay Beaujolais - Gamay de Bouze - Gamay Noir - Gamay (Vert) - Gamba di Pernice - Gamza - Garanoir - Gardonyi G - Garganega - Garnacha - Garnacha Rosa - Garnacha Tintorera - Geisenheim 9-97 - Geisenheim 11-34 - Geisenheim 15-114 - Geisenheim 22-74 - Geisenheim 6494-5 - Geisenheim GM 318-57 - Geisenheim GM 322-58 - Geisenheim 33-13-113 - Geisenheim GM 4984 - Geisenheim GM 6495-3 - Geysserin - Giacomino - Girò - Gliata - Gloria - Godello - Goldburger - Golden Champion - Golden Chasselas - Golden Hamburg - Goldmuskateller - Goldriesling - Goruli Mtsvane - Gouais (Blanc) - Graciano - Gragnano - Grand Noir - Grande Vidure - Granoir - Grasa de Cotnari - Grauer Burgunder - Grey Grenache - Grey Riesling - Grec Rouge - Greco Bianco - Greco Nero - Green Hungarian - Grenache - Grenache Gris - Grignolino - Grillo - Grobrot - Grolleau - Gropello - Gros Guillaume - Gros Monsieur - Grosse Guillaume - Grosse Vidure - Groslot - Guarnaccia - Grüner Veltliner - Gurdjaani - Gutedel - Gutenborner - Gwäss - Gwaess

[H] Haengling Blau - Hamburg Moschato - Hampton Court Vine - Hanepoot - Harriague - Hegel - Heida (Païen) - Helfensteiner - Heroldrebe - Heunisch Blau - Heunisch Weiss - Himbertscha - Hochkroner - Hoelder - Hölder - Humagne - Humagne Rouge - Hondarrobi Beltza - Hondarrobi Zuri - Hundarribi Beltza - Hundarribi Zuri - Huxelrebe

[I] Imperial Blue - Impigno - Incrocio Manzoni - Inzolia - Irsai Olivér - Izabella - Italian Riesling

[J] Jacquère - Jaen - Jewel - Joannes Seyve 23416 - Jongin - (Jost) Geisenheim - Juan Ibáñez - Juhfark - Jurançon - Juwel

[K] Kadarka - Kale Burcu - Kanaan - Kanzler - Karabraimis - Kara Burcu - Karola - Keduretuli - Kékfrankos - Kerrigan - Kerner - Khikhvi - Kleinberger Riesling - Klevner - Klosterneuberg 16-8 - Knipperle - Koelner Blau - Kolor - Korinthiaki - Kotsifali - Kozma CSVT 55 - Kozma CS.V 525 - Krakuna - Krassato - Kunleany

[L] Lacrima - Lafnetscha - Lagorthi - Lagrein - Lambrusco - La Rochelle - Laski Rizling - Lauzat - Leányka - Lefkas - Leopold III - Lemberger - Len de l'El - Lernatu - Lexia - Liatiko - Lignan Blanc - Limberger - Limnio - Listan - Listan Blanco - Listan Negro - Loureira - Loureiro - Loureiro Tinto - Luglienga Bianca - Lumassina

[M] Macabeo - Maccabeo - Maceratino - Madea - Madeleine Angevine - Madeline Angevine - Madeleine Royale - Madeleine Sylvaner - Magliocco Canino - Mainriesling - Malaga Rose - Malagonsia - Malbec - Malingre Précose - Mali Plavac - Malvasia - Malvasier - Malvoisie - Malvoisier - Mammolo - Mandelaria - Manduria - Manseng - Mansois - Manto Negro - Manzoni 2-15 - Manzoni 6-0-13 - Maravia Agria - Maria Gomes - Mariensteiner - Marsanne - Marzemino - Mataosso - Mataro - Matrassa - Mauzac - Mavro - Mavrodaphne - Mazuelo - Médoc Noir - Melnik - Melon de Bourgogne - Mencía - Menu Pineau - Merlot Blanc - Merwal - Mesenicola (Black) - Meslier - Meunier - Michele Pallieri - Michurinetz - Millers Burgundy - Milloccio - Mishket - Misket - Mission - Molette - Molinara - Moll - Monastrell - Monbadon - Mondeuse Noir - Mondeuse Blanche - Monemvasia - Monica - Montepulciano (d'Abruzzo) - Montils - Moravia Agria - Morbidella - Morellino - Morio Muscat -Moristel - Morrastel - Morro d'Alba - Mortagua - Moscadelletto - Moscato di Canelli - Moscato Giallo - Moscatel de Alejandria - Moscatel de Austria - Mosciolo - Moscophilero - Moskovskiy Ustoichiviy - Mosler - Mostosa - Mourillon - Mourisco Preto - Mourvèdre - Mtsvane (Kahetinskii) - Mudzhuretuli - Müllerebe - Müller-Thurgau - Muscadel - Muscadelle - Muscadelle de Bordelais - Muscadet de Bourgogne - Muscardin - Muscat Blanc - Muscat Dr. Hogg - Muscat Dr. Hoog - Muscat Fleur d'Oranger - Muscat Frontignon - Muscat Gordo Blanco - Muscat Hamburg - Muscat Lunel - Muscat Noir Hatif Marsella - Muscat of Alexandria - Muscat Oliver - Muscat Ottonel - Muskatel - Muskateller - Muskat Krymskii - Muskat-Sylvaner

[N] Napa Gamay - Nasco (Bianco) - Negra - Negrara - Negrette - Negroamaro - Negoska - Nerello (Cappuccio) - Neretta Cuneese - Nero d'Avola - Nessun - Neuburger - Nièddera - Nielluccio - Noblessa - Nobling - Nocera Bianca - Noir Hatif de Marseille - Nosiola - Notre Vigne - Nuragus

[O] Obaideh - Oberlin 595 S.P - Oberlin 716 - Odzhaleshi (Mechvelianis) - Oeillade - Okanagan Riesling - Okourechouli - Olasz Riesling - Olivella - Olivese - Ondenc - Opthalmo - Ondarrabi Beltza - Ondarrabi Zuri - Optima - Orange Flora - Orange Muscat - Orange Muskat - Orangeriesling - Orangetraube - Oraniensteiner - Orion Gris - Ortega - Ortlieber - Ortruga - Oseleta - Oselot - Osiris - Osteiner - Osterreicher - Ottavianello

[P] Paarl Riesling - Pagadebit (Gentile) - Pagadebito - Pais - Palas - Pallieri - Palomino - Pambakina - Parellada - Parraleta - Pascale di Cagliari - Pearl of Zala - Pecorino - Pedernã - Pedro Ximénez - Pelara - Pelaverga (Piccolo) - Perdin - Perel - Pere'e Pallummo - Perel - Perlan - Perle von Csaba - Perlette - Perlet - Peloursin - Perricone - Periquita - Petite Arvine - Petit Bouschet - Petite Pineau - Petit Rouge - Petite Sirah - Petit Verdot - Picardan (Blanc) - Picardan (Noir) - Picargniot - Picapoll - Picpoul - Piquepoul (Blanc) - Piquepoul (Noir) - Piedirosso - Pignatello - Pignoletto - Pignolo - Pineau d'Aunis - Pinella - Pinello - Pinenc - Pinotage - Pinot Beurot - Pinot Bianco - Pinot Blanc - Pinot Blanco - Pinot d'Ai - Pinot Grigio - Pinot Gris - Pinot Meunier - Pinot Nero - Pinot Noir - Pinot Précoce - Pinot St. George - Planta Fina de Petralba - Plavac Mali - Pleschatik - Pocalza - Pontac - Portugal Malbec - Portugieser - Posip - Poulsard - Pozsonyi - Précoce de Malingre - Prëmetta - Prensal Blanco - Pressac - Prie Blanc - Prieto Picudo - Primaticcio - Primitivo (di Gioia) - Procanico - Prosecco - Prugnolo Gentile - Pully 1-33 - Putscher - Putzscheere

[Q] Quajara - Queen's Arbor - Queen of the Vineyard

[R] Rabaner - Rabigate - Rabigato - Rabiosa - Rabo de Ovelha - Raboso - Rachuli-Tetra - Ragusana - Raisin d'Or - Raisin de Palestine - Ramisco - Räuschling - Red Malaga - Refosco - Refosco d'Istria - Reichensteiner - Rèze - Rhoditis - Ribier (Noir) - Ribolla Gialla - Ribolla Nera - Ribolo - Rieslaner - Riesling Renano - Ritino - Rivaner - Rkatsiteii - Rkatsiteli - Robola - Roche - Roditis - Rognon de Coq - Rolle - Romain - Romano - Romorantin - Rondinella - Rondo - Rossese - Rossignola - Roter Veltliner - Rotberger - Rotburger - Rotgipfler - Rouge de Fully - Rouge du Pays - Rouchet - Roupiero - Roussanne - Roussette - Roy - Royal - Royalty - Rubin - Rubin Bolgarskii - Rubired - Ruby Cabernet - Ruchè - Rufete - Ruländer

[S] Sacy de Lyon - Sagrantino - Samling 88 - Samtrot - Sangiovese - Sangiovese Grosso - Sangioveto - Saperavi (Charni) - Saperavi Severnyi - Sauvignonasse - Sauvignon Gris - Sauvignon Vert - Savagnin - Savatiano - Scheurebe - Schiava Grossa - Scioppettino - Schoenburger - Schonburger - Schwarzelbling - Schwarzriesling - Scorzamara - Scorza Amara - Sciacarello - Sercial - Serprina - Sereksia (Blanc) - Sereksia (Noire) - Sereksia Tcheurnaia - Serine - Sev Lernatu - Shaltrauben - Shirai Kara - Shiroka Melniska Losa - Siegerrebe - Siegfried - Siegfriedrebe - Siewiernyj - Silcher - Sirius - Silvaner - Sipon - Skujinsh 675 - Sonaka (Seedless) - Sonoma Riesling - Souzão - South African Riesling - Spätrot - Staufer - Stavroto - St. Émilion - St. George - St. Laurent - St-Pierre Doré - Suessrot - Sulmer - Sultanina - Super Hamburg - Suputinski - Svanuri - Sylvaner - Symphonie - Symphony

[T] Tacelenghe - Taddone - Tamaioasa Romaneasca - Tamares - Tamarez - Taminga - Tannat - Tarrango - Tauberschwarz - Tazzelenghe - Tchkhaveri - Teinturier - Temosci - Tempranillo - Terrain - Teran - Terrano (Noir) -Terre Cherny - Teroldego - Terret Bourret - Terret Gris - Terret Noir - Tetra - Thompson Seedless - Tibouren - Tindillaro - Tinta Amarela - Tinta Barroca - Tinta Fina - Tinta Madeira - Tinta Negramole - Tinta del Pais - Tinta Pinheira - Tinta Roriz - Tinta de Toro - Tinto Cão - Tinto Fino - Tocai Friulano - Tokay - Tokay d'Alsace - Torbato - Torrette - Torrontés - Tourbat - Touriga - Touriga Nacional - Trajadura - Traminer - Trebbiano - Trebbiano d'Abruzzo - Treixadura - Tresallier - Tressot - Trincadeira - Trollinger - Trousseau (Noir) - Trousseau Gris - Troyen - Tsimlyanskii (Chernyi) - Tsitska - Tsolikouri - Tullilah - Turan - Tvakveri

[U] Ughetta - Ugni Blanc - Ulliade - Usakhelouri - Uva Barile - Uva dell'Isola - Uva Fosca - Uva Francese - Uva Grilli - Uva Nera - Uva d'Oro - Uva Rara - Uva Stretta - Uva Tedesca

[V] Vaccarèse - Vaccume - Valdepeñas - Valdiguié - Veltliner - Venn's Seedling - Verdeca - Verdejo - Verdelho - Verdello -Verdicchio - Verdiso - Verduzzo - Vermentino - Vernaccia - Vernesina - Vertzami - Vespolina - Vidure - Vien - Vijiriego - Vilana - Viognier - Vissanello - Vitovska - Viura - Vradiano -Vranac - Vroege Loonse

[W] Walsh Riesling - Weinsberg S 341 - Weissburgunder - Weisser Gutedel - Weisser Silvaner - Weldra - Welschriesling - White Moschato - White Pinot - White Tokay - Wildbacher - Wuerzburg - Würzer

[X] Xeres - Xynisteri - Xynomavro

[Z] Zante Currant - Zenit - Zierfandler - Zilga - Zirifahnler - Zirone - Zlata - Zuria - Zweigelt - Zweigeltrebe


VARIETY NAME

ABBUOTO: Red wine variety found in central Italy. Has synonym names of Aboto and Cecubo. Used to make a deeply colored, rustic, dry wine blend with moderate aging ability of up to about 8 years or so.

ABOURIOU: Minor grape now rarely found in the area south of Bergerac, SW. France. Used to make a red wine and thought to be the grape called Early Burgundy in California and Australia. In the latter country it has the occasional alias names Burgundy or Black Cluster.

ACOLON: Variety developed and subsequently released from the Weinsberg/Württemberg Research Station, Baden, Germany in November, 1999. Has synonym name WE 71-816-102. Derived from a Dornfelder x Lemberger V.vinifera cross. Variety is claimed to have good yield, producing red juice with deep color and pleasant tannin content. (No other details as yet).

AFUS ALI: According to the Geilweilerhof database, (see above), this variety originated in Lebanon. Has an extraordinary number of synonym names including Raisin d'Or. While overwhelmingly grown for use as a tablegrape in the Middle East, it can produce a reasonably tempting white wine.

AGIANNIOTIKO: (No other details other than it is a red-wine variety found in Greece, also used for rosés).

AGIORGITIKO: Pronounced "Ah-jee-or-jee tee-koh". (a.k.a St. George). Red-wine grape native to Greece. Used to produce intense, fruity wine in dry and sweet versions. Also blended with Cabernet Sauvignon to create a wine capable of aging well.

AGLIANICO: Red-wine grapevine cultivated in Basilicata and Campania regions of Italy. In the latter province it has the alias names Agliatica, Ellenico, Ellanico, Gnanico and Uva Nera. Of extremely ancient origin, it is responsible for some of the better sturdy red wines of southern Italy - (eg: "Aglianico del Vulture"). Appears to have been used to produce Falurnum, a well-documented favorite wine of the Romans. The name "Aglianico" is reported to be late 15th century corruption of the italian word "ellenico", meaning "hellenic", presumably acknowledging the original home of this variety. The grape is also used to make good bronze-colored rosé-style wine.

AIDANI: Variety found mainly in the western islands off the Greek mainland. Also grown extensively on the island of Rhodes. Used as part of a white-wine blend that includes the Assyrtiko and Athiri grape wine.

AIREN: Semi-classic white-wine producer variety with the unique distinction of being the most widely planted vine variety in Spain. Highly resistant to drought, it is grown at an extraordinary low vine density per acre as low bushes. Its wines are used for distilling into brandy and also blending with deep-red grape wines to create lighter colored versions. Increasingly popular as a dry, crisp white-wine made to be drunk as fresh as possible.

ALADASTURI: V. vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has several synonym names according to the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above). Used in the production of semi-dry rosé wines. (No other details as yet).

ALBALONGA: Grape resulting from a cross between Riesling and a Sylvaner clone. Limited growths in Rheinhessen region of Germany. Used to create good "Auslese" style white wines in better years.

ALBANA: White-wine producing variety of ancient origin widely planted in the Emilia region of Italy. Produced as several variations of dry, semi-dry and sweet (dolce) wine of which the latter is regarded by many as the most successful.

ALBARIÑO: (a.k.a Alvarinho where grown in Portugal). White-wine producing variety, used to create a serious varietal wine with pleasant citrus fruit aroma, widely grown in regions of N.W. Spain and also in northern Portugal. Thought by some to be a Riesling clone originating from the Alsace region of France.

ALBAROLA: White-wine producing variety grown in N.W Italy. Used to make a blend that includes Bosco, and other grape varieties, called "Cinqueterre". Has several synonym names including Calcatella and Temosci.

ALBILLO: Small-berried tablegrape and white-wine producer variety mainly grown in the Castile region of Spain. Often used to produce mediocre, glycerin-rich, sweet wines. However, old vine grapes have been successfully used by a Ribera del Duero winery to create an appealingly complex, aromatic wine. The grape is also widely grown in several South American regions, presumably due to colonial influence.

ALBILLO KRIMSKII: V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS), better known there by its synonym name Rachuli-Tetra. (No other details other than speculation that it may be related to the Albillo variety (above) since it is also used to create a semi-sweet white varietal wine).

ALCAÑÓN: Variety native to the Somontano (Pyrenees) region of Spain that is sometimes used for the production of white varietal wine. Also used in blends with a profusion of other grapewines to produce ruby colored, mildly perfumed and acidic rosado (rosé) wines of moderate alcohol content. (No other details as yet).

ALEATICO: Minor red grape commonly grown in central and southern Italy. Related to the Muscat variety, with strong aroma of that grape, it is grown extensively in the Abruzzo and Apulia regions. Some plantings are also found in the warmer regions of California and Australia.

ALEXANDREULI: Variety grown in Georgia, CIS (former Soviet Union). Reported by the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) as a selected seedling of Muscat of Alexandria. Used to produce a semi-sweet red wine known as "Khvanchkara", or as a medium bodied, semi-dry, chewy blend (with the Mudzhuretuli variety wine) having good acids and claimed to have aroma flavors reminiscent of pomegranates.

ALEXANDRIAN MOSCHATO: Greek name for the Muscat of Alexandria grape. (See below).

ALPHONSE LAVALEE: Seedless tablegrape widely grown in France, South Africa etc. Has many synonym names including Ribier (Noir). Is one of the parents of the Michele Pallieri cross variety. The La Rochelle and Leopold III (the latter having the synonym name Royal) varieties have a selected seedling relationship. South African growers have found that care needs to be taken in choice of grafted rootstock (eg. the Ramsey rootstock variety proved incompatible).

ALFROCHEIRO: Variety used for red wine production in the Dão DOC, Beiras region of Portugal. Can be found in blends also containing Jaen, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional and Tinta Pinheira.

ALICANTE BOUSCHET: Minor grape originating from a 19th century vinifera cross using the Aramon and ancient Teinturier native vine, resulting in a variety possessing the pink flesh and deep red coloring characteristics of its ancient ancestor. This in turn was crossed with the Grenache to give the named grape - (which should not be confused with "Alicante" the old name for Grenache presumably derived from the city in Spain). Widely grown in France, California and Spain. In the latter country it is known as Garnacha Tintorera. In the cool Champagne region of France it is the main grape used to make the sweet "vin mousseux" - (sparkling wine). Often also confusingly known as "Alicante" for short - (see above). Reduced acreages can also be found in Australia. Portugal retains a limited acreage of 100 year old vines used for producing an interesting wine named "Mouchão" that requires 10 years aging for best results. Historically the canned juice has been used by many amateur winemakers for fermenting homemade wines. The Geilweilerhof Database (above) lists many synonyms for this variety.

ALICANTE GANZIN: Major vitis vinifera teinturier red wine grape used as one of the original parents of several crosses bred for deeply colored blending wines. Its offspring derivative crosses are mainly found in California.

ALIGOTÉ: Semi-classic grape (known to be one of the recently determined, 1999, direct descendants of the ancient Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc crossing) widely grown in temperate regions of France, California and Eastern Europe. There are reportedly two mutated varieties grown in the Bouzeron AOC of Burgundy, the productive Aligoté Vert that ripens early with a tendency to high acidity, and the Aligoté Doré having a moderate yield with higher sugar levels than the former variety in cooler years. They are used to make a superior white wine, with little or no aging ability and best drunk young, for blending or as a good dry wine in the better vintage years in Burgundy, France. Successfully used in the cooler western coastal regions of North and South America.

ALTESSE: Semi-classic grape grown in the Savoie region of France. Used with another local grape, the Molette, to create a blend known as "Seyssell" white wine made to be drunk as young as possible. Also used for the superior "Roussette de Savoie" white wine blend created with Mondeuse grape wine. Once thought to have origins in Cyprus, the grape is now suspected of being related to, if not actually being, the Furmint grape of Hungary.

AMIGNE: Vigorous minor grape of ancient origin grown in the Valais district of Switzerland. Used to make an occasionally delicate, perfumed sweet white wine. The dry wine versions are considered to be somewhat ponderous by some.

AMORGIANO: Alternative name for the Mandelaria red wine grape, widely grown on the Greek mainland, when found on the island of Rhodes - (see below).

ANCELLOTTA: Grape grown mainly in central Italy (Emilia) and often used for blending with Lambrusco red wine to produce a sweet (amabile) version.

ARAMON: Minor grape of mediocre quality widely grown in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France and mainly used to make a "stretch" wine for blending with better varieties in order to make some of the more notorious styles of "vin de table" wine associated with the Midi. There are two mutations also found there, Aramon Gris and Aramon Blanc, neither being significant.

ARBOIS: Fairly widely grown white-wine producer grapevine in the Loire region of France. Used in some blends labeled "Touraine". Also known as Menu Pineau or Petit Pineau.

ARGAMAN: Patented (1992) cultivar developed and released around 1988 by the ARO Horticulture Unit, Volcani Center at Bet-Dagan, Israel. Derived from a cross between Souzao and Carignan. Ripens some 1-3 weeks earlier than the latter parent (ie. about mid-August to early September). Resistance to Powdery Mildew also appears superior. Designed to be a hot-climate tolerant variety, it has minimal frost resistance. Vigorous and productive, on Richter 110 and Ruggeri 140R rootstocks, the cultivar is self-fertile, resulting in medium size, moderately compact fruit clusters. Tested as a deeply colored red-wine varietal wine, with a peppery aroma and satisfactory to average acidity and tannins, it produced adequate body and balance. Current usage has been confined to some blends with Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Petite Sirah that seem to show aging possibilities.

ARGOSSA: Variety grown in Portugal. (No other details as yet).

ARINTO: (a.k.a Pedernã). Moderately vigorous grapevine. Widely grown in Portugal where the fruit is used in the production of white "vinho-verde" wines, along with others such as the Trajadura. Recommended rootstock is the 1103-P for good phylloxera and moderate nematode resistance, plus drought tolerance. Suitable for mildly chalky-soils.

ARNAD MONTJOVET: (No other details as yet other than this variety is grown in the Valle d'Aosta region of Italy and is used to create a dry red wine.)

ARNEIS: Minor grape grown in Piedmont region of Italy. Used to make an aromatic white wine - (e.g: "Roero Arneis", "Langhe Arneis")- lacking sufficient acidity, when fully ripened, to age well. Some regard it as reminiscent of wines made from the french Viognier grape grown in the northern Rhone region. Others find Pinot Gris of the U.S. west coast, (see below), similarities in the fruity flavor of the wine when made in the style of "Tokay d'Alsace".

ARNSBURGER: Recently (ca. 1992) released white-wine producing variety derived from a Riesling88 x Riesling64 V. vinifera cross developed at the Geisenheim Research Institute in Germany. Has synonym name Geisenheim 22-74. Currently being evaluated in New Zealand as a suitable upgrade substitute for the still commonly grown Müller-Thurgau variety.

ARRUFIAC: Currently unpopular white-wine producing variety once widely grown in Armagnac region of France. (No other information available on this grape yet).

ARVINE: (a.k.a Petite Arvine). Minor, but of ancient origin, variety grown in the Valais district of Switzerland and Conseil district of the Valle d'Aosta region of Italy. Used to create dry white wine that is fragrant, full-bodied and faintly spicy. Thought to have been known to the Romans who occupied the region.

ASPRINIO BIANCO: White-wine producing variety found in the Campania region of Italy. Used to produce a light, crisply acidic wine for very early consumption. Has several synonym names including Asprino, Olivese and Ragusana.

ASSYRTIKO: Widely grown in Greece this white-wine producer variety is usually found as a 3-way blend with Aidani and Athiri grape white wines in order to create popular styles. Also used as the base wine, along with Roditis grape-wine, in the well-known "Retsina" blends flavored with pine resin.

ASURETULI (SHAVI): V. vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has synonym name of Shaltrauben. Used to create a semi-dry rosé varietal and (with Saperavi (Charni) and other wines) a semi-dry red wine blend. (No other details as yet).

ATHIRI: Commonly found on the western islands off the Greek mainland and the island of Rhodes. Usually used in a white wine blend along with the Aidani and Assyrtiko grape-wines.

AUBIN BLANC: (No information on this grape other than it was grown in the Moselle river area of France).

AUBIN VERT: (No other details other than it has synonym name of Blanc d'Euvizin and is one of the 16 known offspring directly descended from the ancient Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc crossing).

AUBUN: (No other details as yet other than it is a variety grown in the Southern Rhone region of France where it is used to make a red wine subsequently used in blends throughout the region).

AUXERROIS: French local name for the Malbec, a.k.a Côt red wine grape species grown in the Cahors region of France and also, confusingly, an important white-wine producing variety in the Alsace region called the Auxerrois Blanc that is distinct from another locally grown white-wine producer variety called the Auxerrois Gris that is actually the Pinot Gris variety grape. Another grape, bearing the alias name Gros Auxerrois was once found widely grown in the south of France and, currently known as Napa Gamay in California, is actually the variety Valdiguié.

AUXERROIS BLANC: Local name for variety, used for white wine production, grown in the northeast Moselle and Alsace regions of France. Used to produce mildly acidic wines that add a honied intensity to blends with the Pinot Blanc in the better vintage years. Is one of the 16 known varieties directly descended from the ancient Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc cross.

AVANÀ: Thought by some to be the Gamay (Vert) mutant variety. Has synonym name Troyen in France. Rare variety grown sparingly in the Valsusa DOC, Piedmont region of Italy. Used to make red varietal wine with intense violet-ruby color, peppery aroma tones and good acid/tannic structure.

AZAL: Grape cépage found in northern Portugal and used for early consumption "vinho verde" wines. The white wine version carries the extension "branco", the red is "tinto"; as in "Azal (Branco/Tinto)".

BACCHUS: White-wine producingcross derived from Müller-Thurgau, Riesling and Sylvaner. Found in many English, German and Western Canadian vineyards because of its adaptability to a wide range of climates. Tends to be low in acidity and so is mainly vinified to be a sweet wine with Muscat-like or occasional delicate Sylvaner flavors because of its ability to reach "Auslese" style or even higher sugar levels in good years. English wineries exclusively create dry wines from the variety. Commonly blended with lesser grapewines in the Rheinhessen region of Germany to create "QBA" type village wines. Its popularity is only exceeded by the Kerner or Ehrenfelser varieties. (NB: A currently rare early 19th century American hybrid, originated by J.H Ricketts of Newburg, N.Y around 1870, also bears the Bacchus name but is not related in any way to the above variety. It is recorded as being a hardy, disease resistant, high acid, sterile pollinate V.riparia/labrusca variety derived from a Clinton O.P seedling x Unknown cross once occasionally grown in New York State and used to create a dark red wine. Its limitations included an inability to withstand drought or lime-rich soils plus poor suitability as a tablegrape. Budburst/flowering was early, ripening late with a long hangtime, producing small to medium fruit clusters that were judged superior in quality to the the Clinton parent variety).

BAGA: Red wine grape widely grown in the Bairada DOC, Beiras region of Portugal. It is apparently directly derived from an Aramon and Petit Bouschet cross. Produces acidic, tannic wines capable of aging well; especially the "garrafeira" (special reserve) versions. Has several synonym names including Tinta Fina. In France it has the synonym names Grand Noir, Granoir and Garanoir.

BACHET NOIR: (No other details as yet other than it has the synonym name Francois Noir and is one of the 16 known direct descendants of the ancient Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc cross that resulted in this red-wine creating variety).

BALADA: Black skinned variety found in Spain. Pedigree is reported to be Muscat Hamburg x Mortagua. (No other details as yet).

BARBAROSSA: Red wine variety found in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, France and surrounding Balkan region. Has many synonym names including Barbaroux, Malaga Rose and Grec Rouge. Used to make an aromatic, robust varietal wine with moderate aging potential.

BARBERA: Semi-classic grape commonly grown in the Piedmont region and most of northern Italy. Now thought by some to be identical with the Perricone, or Pignatello, grape of Sardinia. Was probably imported into the U.S.A. late in the 19th century. Usually produces an intense red wine with deep color, low tannins and high acid and is used in California to provide "backbone" for so-called "jug" wines. Century-old vines still exist in many regional vineyards and allow production of long-aging, robust red wines with intense fruit and enhanced tannic content. Plantings in North America are mostly confined to the warm western coastal regions.

BARESANA: Table/Wine grape cultivar derived from a Golden Hamburg x Muscat of Alexandria variety cross. Has about a dozen synonym names including Golden Champion and White Tokay. Widely grown in Europe and other cool climate regions.

BAROQUE: White-wine producing variety found mainly in the Landes region, (S.W. France), adjoining the Madiran A.O.C of Armagnac. Used to create "Tursan" local varietal wine.

BATIKI: (No information as yet on this variety, widely grown in Greece, used for white wine production).

BAZALETURI: Variety grown in Georgia (CIS) and used in white wine production. Has synonym name Tsolikouri. Used to make a semi-sweet varietal wine. (No other details as yet).

BEAUNOIR: (No other details other than it is Chardonnay-like white-wine creating variety that is one of the known 16 descendants of the Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc ancient variety crossing and has several synonym names including Cep Gris, Mourillon and Pinot d'Ai).

BELLONE: Variety used for white wine production. Used as a component in an esteemed multi-wine blend called "Velletri Bianco". Wines from good vintages considered to have excellent aging ability. Mostly found in the Castelli Romani region, Latium province of Italy.

BERLINKA: Red-wine/tablegrape variety grown in Israel and South Africa. Has low tannins and medium body as a wine. Described by some as having indeterminate flavors. Miniscule output has not attracted any favorable comment as far as is known. (No other details as yet).

BERNARDE: (No details as yet other than it is a variety grown in the Valais district of Switzerland, is used mainly for white wine production, and has the premier synonym name Prie Blanc).

BIANCAME: Ancient variety grown in Italy and used for white wine production. Has alias name Morbidella. (No other details as yet).

BIANCO D'ALLESANO: Variety used for white wine, grown in Italy and several Central European countries. Has several synonym names that include Achiappapalmento and Bianco di Valdigna. (No other details as yet).

BIANCOLELLA: Variety mostly found in Campania region of Italy. Used to produce aromatic yet acidic dry/sweet still, sparkling varietal white wines, and blends in combination with such varieties as Forastera all for early consumption.

BIANCONE: Minor grape grown in Italy and Australia. Listed as an alias name for the Trebbiano (below) in some databases. May be a synonym name for the variety Mostosa found in the former country. In Australia it is also known under the alias name of White Grenache.

BICAL: Variety used for white wine production in the Beiras district of Portugal. Can be found as a crisp, mildly aromatic varietal but most often is used in sparkling wine blends.

BLACK RIESLING: Alias name for Pinot Meunier. (See below).

BLANC DU VALDIGNE: Has several synonym names including Blanc de Morgex. Indigenous variety grown in the Val d'Aosta region of Italy. Claimed to be free of phylloxera attack in its high altitude, rocky habitat. Used to create a white varietal wine reportedly possessed of a mildly aromatic fragrance and, in some cases spritzy, delicately crisp flavor. Made as a dry wine for early consumption near the villages of Morgex and La Salle in high ski country. Also grown in Argentina, France and Switzerland.

BLAUFRÄNKISCH: Name for a Gamay type clone grape that is grown in Austria and used to produce dry, fruity red wines. The grape is also grown in Germany under the name Limberger. Also known as the Kékfrankos grape in Hungary and currently the main ingredient partly replacing Kadarka in the red wine blend once famous as "Egri Bikaver". According to a recent database search this variety has over 40 synonym names in countries spread over Eastern/Central Europe.

BLAU PORTUGIESER: (a.k.a Portugieser, see below.)

BOAL: Has alias name of Bual and, under this name, the grapes are mostly used in the production of medium rich fortified wines that come from the island of Madeira. According to the Geilweilerhof DNA Database (above) the name is a synonym for each of four, or possibly more, white-wine producing varieties. Can be any one of the varieties Codega, Dõna Branco, Rabigato, or Semillon. The vines are also common in Portugal and Spain where the fruit is used in the same way for fortified wines.

BOBAL: Red wine grape extensively grown in Spain. Produces deeply colored wine suitable for blending.

BOMBINO BIANCO: (a.k.a Trebbiano d'Abruzzo in the Abruzzo). Widely grown in the Apulia region of southern Italy. Used as a white blending wine or, in the Abruzzo region, as a local "vino di tavola" that reportedly will age well for up to 6 years. A mutation grown in Apulia is called Bombino Nero.

BOMBINO NERO: (See Bombino Bianca above).

BONAMICO: Variety found in central Italy and Sardinia that is used for red wine, raisin and rootstock production. Synonym names include Canaiolo Romano (ie. possibly related to the variety Canaiolo (Nero) below), Giacomino, Pascale di Cagliari (alias name in Sardinia), and several others.

BONARDA: Variety extensively grown in Argentina, currently thought by some to be totally unrelated to the variety of the same name grown in Italy and is actually the Charbono variety imported in the past from California. (see also Croatina below).

BONARDA (PIEMONTESE): Minor red grape grown in Piedmont region of Italy. Makes fruity red wine of mild intensity when blended with wine from Barbera grape.

BONARDA NOVARESE: Alternate name for Uva Rara grape. (See below).

BONDOLA: Relatively rare indigenous red wine grape of southern Switzerland.

BONVEDRO: Minor grape grown in Italy and Australia. In the latter country it is also known under the alias name of False Carignan.

BONVINO NERO: (See Cesanese below).

BORDO: Synonym name for the Cabernet Franc grape when grown in NE. Italy.

BOSCO: White-wine producing variety mainly found in the Liguria region of Italy. Has synonym name Madea. Used to make the mildly aromatic, dry blend known as "Cinqueterre" that includes the grape varieties Albarola and Vermentino. Some consider the current versions of the wines to be less than ideal.

BOSKOKISI: (No other details as yet other than its claim to fame as one of the parents of the Prachttraube cultivar).

BOUCHET: Alternate name for the Cabernet Franc grape when grown in certain cru areas of the Bordeaux region. Conversely, in Australia, it is used as an alias name for the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

BOUCHY: Local name for the Cabernet Franc grape grown in the Pyrenees region of France. Makes one of four wines blended to produce a full-bodied red wine called "Madiran". The others are Courbu, Pinenc and Tannat.

BOUQUETTRAUBE: Has synonym name Bukettraube. Variety used for mediocre white wine production is grown in France, Germany, Italy, South Africa and Zimbabwe. (No other details as yet).

BOURBOULENC: Minor white-wine producing variety, grown in southern Rhone region of France, sometimes used in local white wine blends to help create acidic balance. Has the synonym names Malvoisie in the Languedoc region of France and Blanquette in Australia. Ripens in October and susceptible to rot. Has synonym name (or possible clonal relationship to) Picardan (Blanc), a variety that has similar characteristics and is also condemned by some as capable only of mediocre white varietal wine production.

BOUVIER: Minor native grape grown in Austria. Produces soft, fragrant white wines. Most of the crop is processed into a grape juice called "Traubenmost" and also made into a sweet wine called "Sturm" that is drunk very young in the manner of "nouveau" beaujolais. The grape is also extensively grown in Hungary.

BOVALE PICCOLO: Red wine grape grown in central Sardinia. Used to make aromatic dry varietal, and rosés, (also blended wines), for early consumption. Has several synonym names including Bovale Sardo.

BRACHETTO: Minor grape grown in Cuneo province, Piedmont, Italy. Often used to make light, frizzante low-alcohol (5%) red sweet wine named "Birbet" noted for fruity, raspberry/strawberry aroma with some style resemblance to the more famous "Moscato d'Asti" wines. Normally drunk as young as possible and served chilled. Known to be the same grape as the French Braquet

BRAQUET: (see also Brachetto above). Red-wine grape grown in the Provence region of France where, as the main ingredient, along with some Cinsaut, it is used to produce one of the better rosé wine blends found in the Bellet area of the Cote d'Azur.

BREIDECKER: This cultivar was released by the Geisenheim Research Station, Germany, in 1962. Has the technical name GM 4984. It was derived from a Müller-Thurgau variety cross with the Chancellor (a.k.a Seibel 7053) hybrid cultivar and can currently be found in limited acreages on the south island of New Zealand where it is mainly used for producing somewhat neutral varietal and blend white wines. Resistant to Bunch Rot and Downy Mildew fungus diseases. Somewhat similar wines are made from the Geisenheim cultivars (noted below) currently grown in Nova Scotia, Canada.

BURGER: Once thought to be identical with the obscure french grape known as Monbadon this variety, used for white wine production, is mostly to be found planted in the Central Valley of California, USA where it is mainly used for blending. However, recent DNA study at Univ. College at Davis, California, indicates that the parents of this cultivar are Ugni Blanc and Folle Blanche.

BUZZETTO: Variety mainly restricted to the Quiliano DOC in Liguria, Italy. Used to make a fresh, crisply acidic white wine considered by some to be a perfect match for local cuisine "Pesto" dishes. Listed as a Trebbiano sub-variety in some databases. May have the synonym names Lumassina and Mataosso.

CABERNET CUBIN: Has synonym name WE 70-281-35. Developed and subsequently released in November, 1999, this V.vinifera cross is reported as derived from Cabernet Sauvignon x Lemberger parentage by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Research Station, Baden, Germany. Red wine is claimed to be rich in fruit aromas and requiring oak cask aging/vinification. (No other details as yet).

CABERNET DORIO: V.vinifera variety, synonym name WE 71-817-89, developed and subsequently released in November, 1999 by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Research Station, Baden, Germany. Derived from a Cabernet Sauvignon x Dornfelder cross. Red wine is recommended for fine fruitiness with velvety, distinctive taste. (No other details as yet).

CABERNET DORSA: V.vinifera variety, having synonym name WE 71-817-92 reported as developed and subsequently released in November, 1999 by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Research Station, Baden, Germany as another Dornfelder x Cabernet Sauvignon cross. Red wine claimed to have harmonious balance, full-body and long finish. (No other details as yet).

CABERNET GROS: Australian synonym name for the Trousseau grape of France.

CABERNET MITOS: Has synonym name WE 70-77-4F. Reported as derived from a Cabernet Sauvignon x Lemberger cross by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Research Station, Baden, Germany, this V.vinifera variety was released in November, 1999. Red wine is claimed to possess a dense, full-body and excellent for cuvees. (No other details as yet).

CABERNET PFEFFER: Variety reported developed in California in the late 1800's as a cross between Cabernet Sauvignon and an unknown variety by the gentleman whose name is immortalized. Another report claims that the variety is in fact Trousseau. At last report it is now only found in one very old vineyard, located in San Benito county, California, the fruit from it occasionally made into a spicy, somewhat peppery, curiosity red wine varietal of good quality by whimsical winemakers.

CABERNET SEVERNYI: Hybrid red wine V. Amurensis hybrid cross variety created in Russia to withstand cold climatic conditions. Small commercial/nursery acreages currently grown in Nova Scotia (Canada). Vigorous growth when rigorous cluster thinning techniques used on the secondary clusters of this prolific producer. Early budding occurs late May and the cultivar has the unusual characteristic of early closedown in anticipation of first frost causing fruit to fall off the vine within a few days. Susceptible to fungus diseases Aspergillus, Powdery Mildew and Penicilium. Hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) with tendency to high acids in cool years. Reported to be a female pollinate and so needs planting in alternate rows with other varieties. Creates red wine with excellent color and fragrant, heavy aroma recommended for blending with lighter wines. Reportedly similar in many ways to the Michurinetz grape cross - (see below) - currently grown on limited acreages in the Finger Lakes region of Western New York State (USA) and Nova Scotia, Canada.

CALABRESE: Alternate name for the Nero d'Avola grape. (See below).

CALITOR: Red wine grape variety grown in the Lirac AC north-west of Avignon and in the coastal Bandol AC between Toulon and Marseille, France. Used almost exclusively in blends that approximate a lighter version of a Chateauneuf-du-Pape and capable of around 5 years aging. (No other details as yet).

CALLET: Native red-wine grape found on the island of Mallorca, along with two others indigenous to the island - Fogoneu and Manto Negro. Used to produce a popular strong, spicy blend - having some aging ability - with the latter grapewine.

CAMARÈSE: Variety used in red wine blends of the Cotes du Ventoux east of Avignon, France. (No other details as yet).

CANAIOLO (NERO): Minor grape grown in the Tuscany region of northern Italy. Red wine from this variety is often used for blending with Sangiovese Grosso in some of the Chianti range of red wines. Is also an ingredient in other local blends. Has many synonym names including Caccione (Nero), Tindillaro and Uva Fosca.

CAPE RIESLING: Not related to the Riesling grape cépage in any way. Is actually the Crouchen varietal now sparsely grown in the Pyrenees region of France and is thought to have been translocated to South Africa in the mid-19th century where the grape has been subsequently also known as the South African Riesling, or Paarl Riesling, presumably due to an identification error. This same grape is similarly misidentified as the Clare Riesling in Australia. The misnamed Cape Riesling can legally be sold under a "Riesling" non-varietal white wine blend label and is known to have good bottle-aging potential. (The true, german Riesling grape is locally known as the Weisser Riesling, or White Riesling, in South Africa).

CARIGNAN: (a.k.a Carinena and Mazuelo in Spain, Gragnano in Italy, Carignane - or occasionally Kerrigan - in California). Normally ripens in late season around the end of September. Semi-classic grape commonly used for making red wines in Southern France and Spain. It is also successfully grown in California's Central Valley, often ending up in generic blends and "jug" wines, although some old plantings allow small lots of premium extract wine to be made. Blended with other varieties such as Cinsaut, Grenache, Mourvèdre and Syrah, it has been used to create red wines in California similar to the famed Chateauneuf-du-Pape blend of the southern Rhone region of France. In Australia it has the occasional alias name Black Portugal.

CARIGNANE: Californian synonym name for Carignan grape. (See above).

CARINA: Variety developed in Australia and used to produce dried grapes.

CARINENA: Spanish synonym name for the Carignan grape. (See above).

CARMENÈRE: Has synonym name Grande Vidure. Very limited plantings of this red wine grape are now found in the Médoc region of Bordeaux, France where it is used to produce deep red wines occasionally used for blending purposes in the same manner as Petit Verdot. The worlds largest vineyard area under cultivation of this variety is now found in the Santiago region of Chile, South America. Some claim that, in Chile, some individual plantings of this variety has been mistakenly labeled as Merlot due to certain ampelographic similarities. Recent genetic research has shown that the two varieties may in fact be distantly related. Others claim that, in France, the variety name is an alias for what is actually the Vidure, a local Bordeaux name for a Cabernet Sauvignon clone. Another theory holds that the true name should be Biturica, thought to be an ancient variety that originated from Iberia - (modern Spain/Portugal) - as claimed by Pliny, and currently a popular blending variety with Sangiovese in Tuscany, Italy, called "Predicato di Biturica".

CARMINA: Developed at the Geilweilerhof Research Institute, Germany, this cultivar is a cross between the Portugieser and Spätburgunder varieties. It is mainly used as a teinturier-style colorant grape.

CARMINE: Red wine grape cross derived from same parents and by same oenologist as Carnelian below and similar in most respects. Claimed to be very similar to Merlot yet somewhat more cold- hardy when grown in cool climates. Mainly used to make a "stretch" blending wine for lower-priced varietal wines in California and elsewhere.

CARNELIAN: Released in the early 1970's, this red wine grape was created by Dr. H. P. Olmo, a U. Davis oenologist, some 30 years earlier and derived from crossing Grenache, Cabernet Sauvignon and Carignan. Currently grown in Central California and, more successfully, in Texas.

CARRICANTE: White-wine producing variety mainly found in the Etna DOC region of Sicily. Synonym names are Catanese Bianco and Nocera Bianca. (No other details as yet).

CASTELÃO FRANCÊS: Red-wine grape grown in the Ribatejo and other regions of southern Portugal. Has synonym name of Periquita where grown in the Estremadura region nearby and (reportedly) Trincadeira in the Alentejo region. Used to make a popular, robust, varietal wine.

CATARRATO BIANCO: Variety native to Sicily where it is found widely grown along the western coast. Usually blended with Grillo and the Inzolia white wines to create versions of historically interesting "Marsala" wine in several dry, or sweet dessert, styles.

CENICERO: Red-wine grape local to the Rioja Alta region of Spain. Used to make good regional varietal wine.

CENTURION: Red grape cross with same parents as Carnelian above and created by same viticulturist. Used for blending with lesser wines to improve perceived quality.

CERCEAL: Variety, used in white wine production, grown in Portugal. The Sercial grape grown on the island of Madeira is identical and is the corrupted english synonym name.

CESANESE: (aka Bonvino Nero). Red wine grape of ancient origin mostly found in the Latium region of central Italy.

CÉSAR: Synonyms include Celar, Gros Monsieur, Picargniot, Romain and Romano. Red-wine grape grown in area close to Chablis region of Northern Burgundy, France. Mainly blended with Pinot Noir to create a light red wine known as "Bourgogne Irancy". Also some acreages in Argentina and Chile where it is used to produce a varietal wine labeled as Cesar.

CHAOUCH BLANC: (No other details other than it is a V. Vinifera cross cultivar with several synonym names).

CHARBONO: Red-wine creating grape grown on small acreages in California. The name there is thought to be an early Italian immigrant corruption of Charbonneau, a french synonym for the Douce Noir grape variety, still found in the Savoie region of France, that has many synonym names (noted in the Geilweilerhof database above) including Corbeau Noir. Some strongly believe, despite distinct ampelographic differences, that these varieties share a clonal or mutant relationship to the Dolcetto variety widely grown in northern Italy. Others argue that the relationship is to the Barbera variety of Italy. The vine bears small berries that are used to make a very dark red wine that, when subjected to extended skin contact during fermentation, is flavorful and quite tannic.

CHARMONT: White-wine producing variety with Chasselas x Chardonnay pedigree grown in the Valais district of Switzerland. Has synonym name Pully 1-33.

CHASAN: (Pronounced "sha-sawn"). White-wine producing grape cross derived from the Chardonnay and Listan varieties. Developed by the U. of Montpellier in France. Used to produce a white-wine with varietal similarities to the Chardonnay parent, including such flavors as honied floral aroma and crisp acidity.

CHASSELAS: (Pronounced "shash-lah"). Semi-classic variety grown in Switzerland, France, Germany, New Zealand and U.S.A. Widely grown in the cantons of the first country where it has several regional synonym names, the main one being Fendant in the Vaud and Valais districts. It is also known as Perlan in the Mandement district. Mostly vinified to be a full, dry and fruity white wine. Also suitable as a Table grape. In France it is mostly grown in the Loire region where it is converted into a blend with Sauvignon Blanc called "Pouilly-sur-Loire" and in the Savoie region where it is treated in the Swiss manner. German growers of the Baden region know it under the name Gutedel. In New Zealand it is mainly made into popular sweet white wines. Californian and Australian growers know this variety under the alias names of Chasselas Dore or Golden Chasselas. Recent research indicates that the Viognier grape may be a related mutant variety.

CHASSELAS ROSE: (No details as yet other than it is thought to be a mutant clone of Chasselas).

CHAUCHÉ GRIS: Mutation of the Trousseau vinifera grape grown in France. Currently known in California as Grey Riesling and mainly used in a white wine blend that also contains some Chenin Blanc and Sylvaner varietals.

CHENEL: Acidic, disease-resistant vinifera cultivar grown in South Africa. Is result of a Chenin Blanc x Ugni Blanc cross. The same parentage is responsible for the cultivar known as Weldra, also grown in South Africa. Used in white wine production. (No other details as yet).

CHINURI: V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Used as an ingredient of sparkling white wine blends along with Goruli Mtsvane wine. (No other detail;s as yet).

CHKHAVERI: Grown in Georgia (CIS), this V.vinifera variety has the synonym name Tchkhaveri. Mostly found made into a semi-sweet onion-skin style varietal wine. (No other details as yet).

CILIEGIOLO: Red-wine grape used as a component in a multi-wine blend known as "Velletri Rosso". Wines from good vintages are known to have excellent aging ability. Mainly grown in the Castelli Romani region, Latium province of Italy.

CINSAUT: (a.k.a Cinsault). Semi-classic grape widely grown in southern France, Italy and also in the Lebanon. Has many aliases. In the southern Rhone region it has the alias name Picardan (Noir). In Apulia, Italy it has the synonym name of Ottavianello. Used as blend component in many red or rosé wines. Transplanted to South Africa, where it was erroneously thought to be a Rhone Hermitage grape, and now a widely grown variety making a popular red wine in that country, and often blended with Cabernet Sauvignon. It has also been used to create the hybrid grape variety known as Pinotage. Also grown in Australia under several alias names that include Black Prince, Blue Imperial, Oeillade and Ulliade.

CIVIDIN BIANCO: Has synonym name of Cividino. Rare variety grown in N. Italy and used to make an aromatic, flavorsome white varietal wine claimed to have flowery aroma with taste of almonds, curd cheese and sweet limes.

CLAIRETTE: Minor grape grown in the south of France and used with the Muscat grape to create a sparkling dry or semi-dry white wine blend. Best known product, known as "Clairette de Die", comes from the eastern Rhone region of France. Considerable plantings are found in Australia where it is also confusingly known under the alias misname of Blanquette which name in turn is more commonly used elsewhere as an alias for the Jaen grape variety mainly grown in Spain.

CODA DI VOLPE: Variety grown in Campania, Italy, especially near Naples, and used for white blending wine in the "Lachryma Christi del Vesuvio" white version along with Verdicchio, Greco di Bianca and Falanghina.

CODEGA: Has synonym name of Roupeiro and is one of the main varieties known under the alias name of Boal, or Bual, that are grown on the island of Madeira for use in fortified wines.

COLOMBARD: Better known as French Colombard in North America. The grapes from old vines are crushed by some northern Californian producers and made into a fruity white wine of interesting character in both dry and sweet versions. Otherwise mainly grown in California to provide backbone, due to its natural acidic character, for white "jug" wine blends. Still grown in S.W France where it is used for white wine blends in certain Bordeaux and Gascony AOC's and is also used for distilling into brandy. Also widely grown in South Africa. A recent research article from U.C. Davis in California demonstrated that this variety resulted from an ancient cross of Chenin Blanc with Gouais Blanc.

COLORINO: Variety occasionally used in a light-bodied blend, based on Sangiovese, with other red wines of Tuscany, Italy. The grape has several synonym names. (No other details as yet).

COMETTA: Red wine variety grown in central Italy. Used as an ingredient in sweet wine blends. (No other details as yet).

COMPLETER: (a.k.a Lafnetscha). Variety native to Switzerland and used in the Grisons canton region to make aromatic white wine blends with some aging ability.

COMTESSA: Cool climate cultivar derived from the Traminer and Madeleine Angevine varieties. Claimed to produce fruity white wines similar to those of White Riesling. Has good winter hardiness and bunchrot resistance. Ripens at the same time as Chardonnay and White Riesling in the Finger Lakes region of New York State.

CORNALIN: (a.k.a Rouge du Pays). Vigorous ancient variety indigenous to Switzerland and used to produce rich, plummy, concentrated red wine claimed by some to be reminiscent of french central Rhone versions and often requires similar aging.

CORTESE: (Pronounced "cor-teh-zeh"). Minor grape grown in the Piedmont region of Italy and used to make the "Gavi" - (e.g: Cortese di Gavi), white wines.

CORVINA: (a.k.a Corvina Veronese). Used with several other grapes to create the light red regional blends known as "Bardolino" and "Valpolicella" that have a mild fruity flavor with hints of almond. The blends include Rondinella, Molinara (and Rossignola for the latter wine). The latter blending wine has been replaced by some producers with the rare, indigenous Dindarella variety, and the Oseleta in order to produce a more traditional version of "Valpolicella". Mainly grown in the Veneto region of northeast Italy.

CÔT: Synonym name in the Bordeaux region of France for Malbec variety. (See below). Also has synonym names Pressac and Médoc Noir in the same region.

COUNOISE: Semi-classic grape grown in the southern Rhone and Pyrenees regions of France and used in the red wine blends of Chateauneuf-du-Pape or Banyuls, and other local wines of those regions to create aroma and acidic freshness. Thought by some to be of unknown Spanish grape origin.

COURBU: Minor grape used to create a red wine blend known as "Madiran", found in the Pyrenees region of France. The other wines in the blend are made from the Bouchy, Pinenc and Tannat grapes.

COURTILLER MUSQUE: Thought to be one of the parents of Goldriesling below. (No other details as yet).

CRIOLLA CHICA: Argentine synonym for the Pais grape grown in Chile. The mutation known as Criolla Grande is used to make a generally mediocre white wine.

CRIOLLA GRANDE: (See Criolla Chica above).

CROATINA: Minor grape grown in the Piedmont, (Piemonte), region of Italy. The Bonarda of the "Colli Piacentini" and "Oltrepo Pavese" is actually this grape.

CROUCHEN: (a.k.a Cruchen). Variety translocated from France to Australia and South Africa where it is used in the production of white wine. In Australia it has been historically known as Clare Riesling presumably being a regional marketing name. See Cape Riesling above for main information.

CSERSZEGI FUSZERES: Hungarian cross derived from Irsai Olivér and Traminer varieties. Used to create a grapey white wine laden with floral aromas reminiscent of Muscat.

DALNIEWOSTOZNYD RAMNING: Usually referred to as "Dalni Ramning" by growers. Is severe cold resistant -30 deg. F. (ca -35 C.) variety, weak in growth, that ripens very early (mid-August) in Minnesota. Berries are very attractive to birds. (No other information on this grape at present).

DEBINA: Variety found widely grown in N.W. Greece and Albania. Mainly used to produce a sparkling, fresh young white wine.

DECKROT: Developed at the Freiburg Research Institute, Germany, this is a red-fleshed teinturier cultivar derived from a Pinot Gris and Teinturier cross.

DIMIAT: White-wine grape widely grown in Bulgaria. Used mainly to produce sweet wines for early consumption.

DINDARELLA: (a.k.a Pelara and Quajara). Variety grown in the Veneto region of northern Italy and used by a few producers as one of the blending wines to create the red "Valpolicella" Classico.

DINKA: Widely planted white-wine grape variety widely grown in Hungary.

DIOLINOIR: (No details yet other than the variety is reported to be a red wine producing grape widely grown in the Valais region of Switzerland).

DOLCETTO: Well-known grape widely grown in Piedmont region of Italy. Usually made into fast maturing, fruity and robust dark red wine with faintly bitter flavor. According to some, may have a clonal or mutant relationship to the Douce Noir grape of the Savoie region of France or (remote possibility) the variety known as Charbono in California.

DOÑA BLANCO: White-wine variety grown in N.W Spain. Found in the El Bierzo region between Leon and Galicia. Known as Doña Branca where grown in Portugal. Is reported by some to be a clone, or synonym name, of the Tamares variety. Is one of the varieties grown on the island of Madeira under the alias name of Boal. (No clarifying details available as yet).

DORADILLO: Australian alias name for the Jaen variety used for red wine production in central Spain and also Portugal. The grape is also confusingly known as the Blanquette in the Hunter Valley.

DORNFELDER: Recent vine resulting from a Helfensteiner x Heroldrebe cross gaining wide popularity in Germany and England. Has synonym name Weinsberg S 341. Creates red wines from grapes that have every important red-wine variety suitable for central Europe in their genealogy, ie. one parent is the hybrid cross result of Trollinger and Früburgunder and the other parent hybrid was the result from crossing Portugieser and Lemberger. Mainly grown in the Rheinhessen and Pfalz regions, it is increasingly available as a bottled varietal with aging potential.

DUNKELFELDER: Developed at the Freiburg Research Institute, Germany, this is a red-fleshed teinturier cultivar derived from the Portugieser and Färbertraube varieties.

DURAS: Minor grape grown in the Gaillac AC northeast of Toulouse, France. Used to create red and rose' blended wines made from such varieties as Fer, Negrette, Syrah and Gamay Noir.

DURELLO: Is alias name for Nosiola variety grown in the Veneto region of Italy. Used there to make still and sparkling dry white-wines of crisply acidic character. Other synonym names are Cagnina, Durella and Rabiosa.

DURIF: (a.k.a Duriff, Dureza). Minor grape grown in France, California and Australia. A recent DNA analysis report (Meredith C.P., et al., "Am. J. Enol. Vitic." 50(3): 236-42 1999) shows this variety is probably a cross between a seedling of Peloursin and the variety Syrah. The recent discovery that the Petite Sirah variety extensively planted in California is identical to, and so is a synonym name for, the subject cultivar was complicated by the use of accessions from vineyards with the most reliable planting records which made it appear that the latter variety may also have been one of several other distinct varieties, all having grower support for the claim of legitimacy. Old vine plantings of Durif are currently (1997) found, and used to produce popular wine, in the Rutherglen (N.E Victoria) region of Australia. (For more information see "Petite Sirah" below).

DURIZE: (No details as yet other than it is a red wine producing variety, possibly indigenous, grown in the Valais district of Switzerland and having the synonym name of Rouge de Fully).

DZVELSHAVA: V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Usually found as one of the varieties (that also include Saperavi (Charni), Izabella, Tsolikouri and other grapewines) that are used to make a sweet red dessert wine blend. (No other details as yet).

EARLY BURGUNDY: (See Abourion above).

EHRENFELSER: White-wine variety, resulting from the crossing of Riesling and a Sylvaner clone, developed in 1929 at the Geisenheim Research Station, Germany. Many consider it second only to the Kerner grape-cross as a frost-resistant Riesling type substitute for the better known Müller-Thurgau cultivar widely grown in Germany and elsewhere. Mild acid content discourages aging. Claimed to have excellent Riesling grape similarities in taste etc. Moderately large acreages can now be found in the Okanagan region of western Canada where, according to local lore, it was originally planted in the late 1970's in lieu of a shortage of select clone Riesling cuttings. Subsequently the vine proved so adaptable and successful that it now, (1990's), constitutes British Columbia's 5th largest white variety crop.

ELBLING: (a.k.a Weisser Silvaner). White-wine grape of ancient origin mostly found in limited plantings in the Mosel-Saar-Ruhr region of Germany, used to produce a traditional dry, sparkling wine.

ELBLING SCHWARZ: V.vinifera variety with several synonym names listed by the Geilweilerhof database (in Foreword above) including Schwarzelbling. (No other details as yet).

EMERALD RIESLING: White-wine hybrid variety developed by H. C. Olmo of UC Davis from a crossing of Muscadelle de Bordelais and (White) Riesling. Probably the most successful of the attempts to breed high quality/quantity white-wine grapes for specific use in California.

ERBALUCE: Minor grape grown in the Piedmont region of Italy and used to make dry white wine. Better known for the full-bodied, sweet wine versions made with dried grapes, (i.e: Passito). Also a fortified version with 16% alcohol, (i.e: Liquoroso).

ERMITAGE: Synonym name for the white-wine Marsanne grape where grown in Switzerland.

ESGANA (CÃO): Synonym for the Sercial grape widely grown on the island of Madeira and known as Cerceal where grown in Portugal.

ESPADEIRO: Red-wine grape grown in northern Portugal and also in bordering Galicia, Spain. Mostly used in "vinho verde", young wines for early drinking.

EZERJÓ: White-wine grape widely planted in Hungary and mainly used to produce dry wines. (No other details as yet).

FABER: (a.k.a Faberrebe). Derived from the crossing of the Weissburgunder and Müller-Thurgau with the aim of achieving frost resistance. High acid grape used for blending in the Rheinhessen region of Germany.

FALANGHINA: White-wine grape found in the Campania region of Italy. Wine made from the ancestor of this grape was known to the Romans. Makes a popular, fruity, varietal and is also used as a blending wine, along with Coda di Volpe and others in the popular "Lachryma Christi del Vesuvio" wine.

FAVORITO: Minor grape grown in the Piedmont region in Italy and having pleasant citric flavors. Mainly used in white-wine blends.

FENDANT: Synonym name for the Chasselas grape where grown in the Vaud and Valais districts of Switzerland.

FER: Also known as Fer Servadou, Brocol, Braucol, Mansois and Pinenc. The name apparently refers to the iron-hard woodiness of the vine. Grown to a limited extent in the Gaillac AC and other regions of southwest France where it is used to impart color, intensity and aroma to regional red wine blends. The variety grown in Argentina and called by this name is now thought to be a clone of Malbec.

FERNÃO PIRES: White-wine variety widely grown in the Ribatejo and other regions of Portugal. Used to make aromatic and somewhat spicy-tasting dry, sweet and sparkling wines. Has synonym name of Maria Gomes in Bairrada. Also quite widely grown in South Africa.

FETEASCA: (a.k.a Fetiaska). Several varieties are grown. The Feteasca Alba, is reportedly a Romanian developed variety seemingly most favored in that countries provinces of Moldavia and Transylvania where it is mainly used to produce dry or semi dry white-wines, although the Cotnari region is famous for semi-sweet and sweet wine versions. The widely grown Feteasca Regala is reportedly a crossing of the "Alba" version with an unnamed variety and is used to produce fresh, crisp, flavorsome white wines. They are also widely planted in Bulgaria and Hungary. In the latter country the "Alba" variety is better known as the Leányka. The selected variant used to produce red wines is the Feteasca Neagra, reputedly indigenous to Romania and one of the chosen V.vinifera cultivars successfuly developed by Dr. Frank for use in the Finger Lakes region of New York. It is mainly grown in several areas of central and southern Moldavia and also in Muntenia province. Usually vinified to produce dry or semi-dry deep red wines with a flavor described as "blackcurrant", requiring some aging.

FETIASKA: (See Feteasca above).

FIANO: Minor, but of ancient origin, grape grown in Campania region of southern Italy. Makes balanced, elegant white wine with attractive nut-like hints in the aroma.

FIÉ: White-wine grape of ancient origin once widely grown in the Loire region of France. Now thought by some to be the ancestor of the Sauvignon cépage variety. Current remaining acreage is used to create wine for blending with Sauvignon Blanc grapewine in order to further enrich the latter wine.

FINDLING: A mutated version of the Müller-Thurgau grape. (See below).

FOGONEU: Native red-wine grape indigenous to the island of Mallorca along with two others named Callet and Manto Negro. (No other details yet).

FOGONEU FRANCÉS: Native variety grown on the island of Mallorca. (No other details as yet).

FOLLE BLANCHE: Minor white-wine grape once used in the distilled wines of the Cognac region of France. Small acreages still remain in the western Loire region that are used to produce an often light, sharply acidic wine called "Gros Plant du Pays Nantais" locally claimed to be a useful foodmatch alternative to Muscadet de Bourgogne. Also grown in the S. Rhone region where it has the synonym name Piquepoul (Blanc).

FORASTERA: Variety used for white wine production found mainly in the Ischia, Campania DOC of Italy. Used to produce a dry, fresh wine reputed to be a good accompaniment for regional fish-based meals. Has the synonym name Uva dell'Isola. Often blended with the wine made from the Biancolella grape to create "Ischia Bianco" a light wine best drunk as young as possible.

FORTANA: Variety grown in Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Has several alias names including Brugnola and Uva d'Oro. Used to make a full=bodied, crisply acidic varietal red wine. (No other details as yet).

FORTA: Derived from a Silvaner x Madeleine Angevine cross. Frost-hardy in a good site. Reported as having sugars and acidity higher than Müller-Thurgau. Used to make a varietal white wine claimed to have profile similarities to Pinot Gris.

FORCALLAT: Variety grown in La Mancha province of Spain. Mainly used in red wine blends. (No other details as yet).

FRANCAVILLA: Variety used for white wine production in Apulia, Italy. Found in a blend with Impigno wine. (No other details as yet).

FRANKISCH: Reported to be a very ancient variety considered to be one of the progenitors of all european Vitis Vinifera winegrapes. Generally accepted to be identical to the Savagnin (Blanc) variety. (No other details other than the reference occurs in the research paper by Regner, F., et al., "Wein-Wissenschaft", 53(3) 114-18 1998).

FREISA: Minor grape grown in Piedmont region of Italy and used to make both dry and spumante-style sweet red wines.

FREISAMER: (No details as yet other than it is a white wine producing variety grown in the Valais district of Switzerland derived from a Silvaner x Rulander cross developed at the Freiburg Institute, Germany and has the synonym name Freiburger).

FRÜROTER VELTLINER: (a.k.a Malvasier). White wine producing variety grown in Austria. Despite the first glance similarity in the synonym name spelling the grape is reportedly not related in any way to the Malvasia cépage.

FRUEHER MALINGRE: (No other details as yet other than this variety is a synonym name for Pré de Malingre and is claimed to be one of the parents of the Saperavi Severnyi cultivar cross).

FUMIN: Limited amounts of this indigenous variety grown in Valle d'Aosta region of N.W. Italy. Used in good light bodied red blend, with other local varieties, such as Petit Rouge, reportedly needing moderate aging (3-5 years) to be at its best.

FURMINT: Widely grown grape in Hungary. Used to create a dry varietal and the famous long-aging, ultra-sweet "Tokaji" white wines. Also grown in Austria where it is known as the white-wine grape Mosler. Smaller plantings are found in Slovenia (former Yugoslavia) where it is known as the Sipon variety.

GAGLIOPPO: Red-wine grape used to produce strong, young-drinking, wines in the Calabria region of Southern Italy.

GAMARET: Vigorous red wine grape cultivar mainly grown in the Vaud/Valais districts of Switzerland. Reported to be a Gamay Noir à Jus Blanc and Reichensteiner vinifera cross variety released in 1970 by the Pully Research Institute, Nyon, Switzerland. Makes a spicy, tannic, structured product suitable for varietal wine and blends that some contend can resemble a light Bordeaux red wine in good vintage years.

GAMAY: At least three different vitis vinifera grape species are permitted to use the term "Gamay" as their label-specified variety in the U.S.A. The Gamay Noir, Gamay Beaujolais and Napa Gamay. At one time or another each one was thought to be the true Pinot Noir variety of Burgundy before it was determined that many cepage clones existed.

GAMAY BEAUJOLAIS: The Gamay Beaujolais grape is a widely grown, early-ripening clone of Pinot Noir that can do well in the temperate climates of the northwest U.S. and if picked promptly will produce a good red wine.

GAMAY DE BOUZE: (see Teinturier below).

GAMAY NOIR: The Gamay Noir grape is a clone of Pinot Noir. The version thought to be responsible for the Beaujolais wines of France is the Gamay Noir à Jus Blanc, as distinct from other Gamay teinturiers - (i.e: Gamay vine mutations of ancient origin noted for their deep red coloring capacity in blends). In the Beaujolais region growers use a variety of clones that include numbers 222, 358, 509, 656 grafted to suitable rootstocks such as Vialla for granitic soils, the standard lime resistant versions such as 161-49C and the American 420A. Its maturation before Pinot Noir makes it suitable for cooler climates. High yields and disease control require intensive attention.

GAMBA DI PERNICE: Red-wine variety grown on very limited acreage in Piedmonte region of Italy. Used to make a pale red wine with mildly spicy and vegetal flavors. (No other details as yet).

GAMZA: The Gamza variety, currently widely grown in northern Bulgaria, is identical with the Kadarka of Hungary. Capable of producing an excellent red wine of full-bodied, tannic content suitable for aging.

GARGANEGA: White-wine grape widely grown in the Veneto region of NE. Italy. It makes the base wine of the well-known "Soave" blend along with up to 30% of Trebbiano derived wine and is also a major portion of the popular "Gambellara" wine blend. At its best this grape will give a good, rather delicate, wine laden with aromatic hints of lemon and almonds.

GARNACHA: Alternate name for Grenache grape in Spain. (See below).

GARNACHA TINTORERA: (See Alicante Bouschet above).

GEISENHEIM GM318-57: White wine producing hybrid cultivar technically known as GM318-57 created in 1957. Reported as derived from Riesling cl.239 F2 and Chancellor parents. Moderately winter hardy. Susceptible to fungus diseases such as Powdery Mildew. Usually ripens late September where successfully grown in Nova Scotia, Canada. A reportedly slightly hardier yet similar hybrid is the Jost Geisenheim listed below. A somewhat similar cultivar, currently grown on the south island of New Zealand, is a variety named Breidecker.

GIRÒ: Old variety used for red wine production in S.W. Sardinia. High alcohol potential makes it suitable for unfortified Port-style sweet wines best consumed within 2-3 years of release. Has several alias names including Gliata and Zirone.

GLORIA: Wine/tablegrape derived from a Silvaner x Müller-Thurgau cross developed at the Geilweilerhof Institute, Germany. Used to make a neutral, full-bodied white wine with faint aroma that will attain higher sugar and lower acidity than Silvaner.

GODELLO: White-wine variety grown in the Rias Baixas and El Bierzo/Valdeorras regions of N.W Spain between Galicia and Leon. Used to make a well-regarded varietal wine with fragrant aromas described as "apples and mangoes", plus good acidity levels and complexity.

GOLDBURGER: Variety grown in Austria that was derived by the crossing of Welschriesling x Orangetraube V. vinifera. Has synonym names of Klosterneuberg 16-8 and Orangeriesling. Mainly used for white wine production.

GOLDEN CHASSELAS: Known under the name Chasselas Doré in France where it is mainly grown as a table grape. Highly respected in Switzerland where it has a long history as the Chasselas in the Savoie region. The mis-named grape grown in California under this name is actually the Palomino and bears no relationship.

GOLDMUSKATELLER: White-wine grape used to produce dry and dessert wines, best consumed early, in the Alto Adige region of N.E. Italy. Noted for its pleasant aromatic qualities. Has synonym name of Moscato Giallo.

GOLDRIESLING: Supposedly ancient grape producing mainly mediocre white wines. Listed by some as a cross between Riesling and Courtiller Musque. Mostly grown on small acreages to be found in former East Germany or northern Austria.

GOUAIS (BLANC): (a.k.a Gwäss or Gwaess). Obscure, heavy bearing, white-wine variety historically used to produce a light neutral wine for blending, or distillation for use in brandy-type fortified wines, in France. Presently found in Australia, France and Switzerland. Also (subject to confirmation) grown in Austria under the synonym name Heunisch Weiss plus in other countries of Central Europe under the synonym name Belina. Reportedly planted in Australia around 1874. At least one producer in Rutherglen, N.E Victoria (and also one each in Bordeaux, France and the Valais, Switzerland) currently (1997) makes wine from this grape. Has achieved instant fame (Meredith, Bowers et al, Science 9/99) as the originating parent, with Pinot Noir, of many of the varieties for which Burgundy, France, is famous. Also recently discovered, by the same researchers, to be one of the parents, the other parent being Chenin Blanc, of the Colombard variety. Austrian research has established that this variety, under its synonym name (above), is responsible in the distant past, together with the ancient Frankisch variety, for creating the crosses that are known in modern times as Riesling, Silvaner and Elbling.

GRACIANO: Late-budding red-wine grape found in the Rioja region of Spain. Sensitive to diseases such as "Downy Mildew". Has the alias name of Xeres in California and Morrastel in France. Confusingly is also an Australian synonym for the Mourvedre hot climate grape. (See below).

GRAGNANO: Italian synonym name for the Carignan grape. (See above).

GRASA DE COTNARI: Variety claimed as grown in Romania for 500 years since the days of Stephen the Great. Used to create a late harvest white wine from botrytis affected grapes with sugar content commonly exceeding 240 grams/litre.

GRAUER BURGUNDER: Alternate name for the Pinot Gris grape in both Austria and Germany. (See below).

GREY RIESLING: (a.k.a Chauché Gris. See above).

GRECO BIANCO; (See Greco Nero below).

GRECO NERO: White-wine grape of ancient origin, probably Greek, grown extensively in southern Italy. A sub-variety is known as the Greco Bianco. Both varieties are used to produce dry, (eg: "Greco di Tufo"), and sweet wines from semi-dried grapes, the Nero grape being the preferred source.

GRENACHE: Also confusingly known under the synonym names Alicante in the south of France and Guarnaccia in the Ischia DOC, Campania, Italy. It should not be confused with the shortened name for the late nineteenth century cross Alicante Bouschet. Grenache is currently widely grown in Spain, (where it is known under the name Garnacha), the south of France and also in California. Is now believed to be descended from the grape named Cannonau, an ancient variety widely grown in Sardinia. It is the main grape used in the red wine blend known as Chateauneuf-du-Pape and, along with the Mourvèdre, Cinsaut and some others, makes good wine blends under the appellation "Cotes du Rhone Villages". In the warmer regions of California the Grenache grape tends to produce pale red wines that are mainly useful for blends. Older vines give juice that produces a creditable varietal. Often "hot" due to high alcohol content and with a distinctive orange colored tint. Also used to make some of the better rosé wines of Provence in southern France.

GRENACHE GRIS: Thought to be a mutated version of Grenache. Used to produce undistinguished white wines in southern France. Has premier synonym name Garnacha Rosa in Spain. Also known as Grey Grenache. Is one of the parent varieties used to create the cross named Symphony mainly grown in California. (See below).

GRIGNOLINO: Commonly grown grape in the Piedmont region of Italy. Makes light red color wine with very fruity aroma and strong acid/tannins.

GRILLO: Widely grown white-wine grape variety in Sicily, where it is mainly used in the blend known as "Marsala" dry and sweet wines. The other grape-wines are derived from the Catarrato Bianco and Inzolia grapes also common to Sicily's west coast.

GROLLEAU: Widely grown grape in the temperate regions of France. Also known as the Groslot. Used as a blend with Gamay Noir and Cabernet Franc to create a somewhat rustic dry and semi-sweet Anjou rose' wine in the Loire region.

GROPELLO: Synonym for the Rossignola red wine variety. Is used for creating the Valtenesi Rosso wine blend found in Brescia DOC, Lombardy, Italy that competes well with the better known Valpolicella and Bardolino wines of the Veneto DOC. As a varietal it is made as a dry, medium-bodied wine with a nut-like finish that ages well for up to 5 years in good vintages.

GROS GUILLAUME: Also known as Grosse Guillaume. Vinifera variety. Has synonym name Rognon de Coq. (No other details as yet other than it is one of the parents of the complex American/Vinifera crosses St. Francis and Alden).

GROSLOT: (see Grolleau above).

GRÜNER VELTLINER: Widely grown in Austria. Is white-wine grape used to create the famous same name fresh, fruity young wines. Also known as (Green) Veltliner. Ripening around mid-late October, it is commonly consumed very young yet has very good aging potential (up to 15 years) when made from the finest vintage year grapes. Noted for being compatible with a very wide range of european and asian food dishes in much the same manner as champagne.

GURDJAANI: (No details as yet other than it is used to produce a white wine in Georgia, CIS.)

GUTEDEL: (a.k.a Weisser Gutedel). Is the german synonym name for the french Chasselas grape when grown in the Baden region of Germany.

GUTENBORNER: Variety derived from a Müller-Thurgau x Chasselas Napolean cross developed at the Geisenheim Research Institute. Reported to have the character of the former parent, producing a fresh, neutral white wine in good years.

GWÄSS: (a.k.a Gwaess). Indigenous white-wine grape of Switzerland now rarely found. Synonym name in France and Australia is Gouais Blanc.

HAENGLING BLAU: V.vinifera variety developed and subsequently released in 1999 by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Wine Research Station, Baden (De). According to the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) has several synonym names including Grobrot, Suessrot and Tauberschwarz. (No other details as yet other than it is recommended for use in creating red wine).

HAMBURG MOSCHATO: Muscat cépage table-grape widely grown in Greece. Also used for making a mild blending wine. (See also Muscat Hamburg below).

HEGEL: V.vinifera variety with synonym name Weinsberg S 342. Derived from a Helfensteiner x Heroldrebe cross created, and subsequently released by the Weinsberg/Württemberg, Baden, Germany, Wine Research Station. (No details as yet other than it recommended for use as a red wine).

HEIDA (PAÏEN): White-wine grape found in the Valais district of Switzerland. Of ancient origin it is thought to be identical to the Savagnin grape of French Savoie.

HELFENSTEINER: V.vinifera cultivar developed and recently released by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Wine Research Station, Baden (De). Has synonym names Weinsberg S 532 and Blauer Weinsberger. Reported as a Pinot Précoce x Schiava Grossa cross. (No other details as yet other than it is recommended for use in red wine blends).

HEROLDREBE: V.vinifera cultivar created and recently released by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Wine Research Station, Baden (De). Has synonym name Weinsberg S 130. Was derived from a Portugieser x Blaufränkisch cross. (No other details as yet other than it is used to create a red wine).

HEUNISCH BLAU: V. Vitis cultivar released around 1990 that has genetic similarities to Furmint, Räuschling and Gamay. According to the Geilweilerhof database (above) has over a dozen synonym names. Recommended for Wine production. (No other details as yet).

HIMBERTSCA: (No details as yet other than it is a white wine producing variety probably indigenous to the Valais district of Switzerland).

HOELDER: V.vinifera cultivar with synonym names Hölder and Weinsberg S 397. Derived from a Riesling x Pinot Gris cross developed and subsequently released by the Weinsberg/Wütttemberg, Baden, Germany, Wine Research Station. (No other details except that the fruit is recommended for white wine production).

HUMAGNE: White-wine grape grown in the Valais district of Switzerland. Not related to the Humagne Rouge cultivar as far as is known.

HUMAGNE ROUGE: Red wine grape of ancient origin indigenous to Switzerland. Can yield rich, plummy wines similar to those of Cornalin.

HUXELREBE: Grape created by crossing the Chasselas and a Muscat variety that contributes its ubiquitous aroma to wines made from the grape. Grown mostly in the Rheinhessen region of Germany and sparsely in England. Used mainly for sweet white wines of no particular distinction that can qualify for "Auslese" Prädikat standards in better vintages.

IMPIGNO: Variety used for white wine production near Brindisi in Apulia, Italy. Usually blended with Francavilla wine to make a crisp tablewine that matches local seafood dishes. Also grown in Argentina where it has the alias name Nessun. (No other details as yet).

INCROCIO MANZONI 6.0.13: Has alias name of Manzoni 6-0-13. White-wine cultivar grown in the Friuli and Veneto regions of Italy. Is a cross between the Riesling Renano and Pinot Bianco vinifera varieties and used to create such base-wine blends as are found in the Colli di Conegliano DOC "Bianco" wines etc.

INZOLIA: Extensive plantings of this variety are found on the west coast of Sicily where it is made into a wine commonly blended with the Grillo and Catarrato Bianco grape wines in order to create the famous dry and sweet "Marsala" white wines of historical significance. The grape is also found in Tuscany region of Italy where it is known by the alias name Ansonica.

IRSAI OLIVÉR: Hungarian tablegrape cross variety developed in early 1930's. Used to produce grapey white wines with Muscat aromatic reminders. Derived from a cross of Pozsonyi x Perle von Csaba V. vinifera varieties. Has synonym names Karola and Muscat Oliver. (No other details as yet).

ITALIAN RIESLING: (a.k.a Riesling Italico in Italy). Also known as the Welschriesling in Austria, Laski Rizling in Slovenia, (i.e: former Yugoslavia), and Olasz Rizling in Hungary. Origins of this grape appear to be obscure, although Romania has been suggested. In the best vintage years of Austria it will allow production of white "Auslese" Prädikat wines to TBA levels, with greater acidity than the german Riesling, but without the same potential for long life.

JACQUÈRE: White-wine grape found in the Savoie region of France and used as blending wine for delicate product.

JAEN: Red wine grape widely grown in central Spain and also in Portugal. Recent DNA typing by spanish researchers (1999) has found that the Mencía variety is a clone. This variety is also found in Australia under the alias names Doradillo and Blanquette.

(JOST) GEISENHEIM: White-wine producing variety technically known as GM6495-3. Created in 1964 at the Viticulture Research Institute, Geisenheim, Germany as a moderately winter hardy cultivar derived from parents that include Saperavi Severny and certain cold hardy tablegrapes. Reportedly has extremely vigorous growth, with correct nutrition, where planted in Nova Scotia, Canada. A reportedly slightly less hardy, yet similar, set of varieties are found in the Geisenheim series listed above.

JUHFARK: Ancient white-wine producing grape currently restricted to the region north of Balaton, Hungary.

JURANÇON: (a.k.a Folle Noire on the Cote d'Azur). Minor grape grown in the Cahors area east of Bordeaux in France. Used to create local blend, along with Malbec and Merlot, that is a well-regarded robust red wine with pronounced aroma. Alone, the grape yields a full, hard and dark-red wine. It is also grown in Provence where it is used in a blend, along with Cinsault and Grenache, to produce one of the favored red wines.

JUWEL: V.vinifera cultivar having technical name Weinsberg S 378. Is a Kerner x Silvaner cross developed and subsequently recently released by the Weinsberg/Württemberg, Wine Research Station at Baden (De) for use as a white wine producing variety. Has synonym name Jewel, not to be confused with the identical synonym name for the selected seedling of the native american Delaware variety popularized in the early 20th century. (No other details as yet).

KADARKA: Native grape grown in Hungary. Used to make "Egri Bikaver", that countries best-known dry red wine blend. Currently the wine is a round, medium-bodied effort that ages fairly well, although the main ingredient is now the grape known as Blaufränkisch, thought to be a Gamay clone. Traditionally the wine was stronger and darker due to high Kardarka content, more deserving of its name "bikaver", which translates as "bulls blood". The grape is also currently widely grown in Bulgaria where it is known as the Gamza variety.

KALE BURCU: V.vinifera tablegrape variety originating in Turkey. Has synonym name Kara Burcu. One of the varieties originally cultivated by Dr. Frank for use in the Finger Lakes region of New York State.

KANZLER: Winegrape derived from a Müller-Thurgau x Silvaner cross that was released in 1927. Has synonym name Alzey S.3983. Possessed of moderate vigor, crop potential, despite wood hardening deficiencies. Claimed to produce a white wine with a delicate bouquet, rich in extract and having a fruity flavor.

KARABRAIMIS: (No other details other than it is a red-wine variety grown in Greece).

KERNER: Moderately hardy grape developed from a cross between the Riesling and Trollinger varieties by the Weinsberg/Württemburg State Wine Institute, Baden (De). The latter variety is better known as the Schiava Grossa where grown in the Alto Adige region of Italy. Used to produce a Riesling-like white wine said to often reach "Auslese" Pradikat quality. Regarded by many as having superior characteristics to the Bacchus or Optima grapes. Currently, 1997, recommended for good site locations in southern Michigan and other suitable cool-climate regions where it usually fully ripens in mid-season.

KHIKHVI: Grown in Georgia (CIS), this V.vinifera variety has the synonym name Chechvi and is commonly made into a sweet white varietal dessert wine. (No other details as yet).

KLEINBERGER RIESLING: White-wine variety, thought to be a minor grape originating from Germany, currently grown in California. (No other information available at present).

KLEVNER: (a.k.a Clevner). Alternative name in the Alsace region of France for the Savagnin grape.

KNIPPERLE: Minor grape found mainly in the Alsace region of France. Has synonym name Ortlieber. Recently (1998) found to have genetic links to the Pinot Noir cépage. Used in generic blend "Vin d'Alsace" white wines along with others, such as Räuschling grapewine.

KOLOR: Developed at the Freiburg Research Institute, Germany, this red-fleshed grape cultivar was derived from a Pinot Noir and Teinturier cross. As far as is known it is used solely to produce a colorant wine in the manner of the latter variety.

KOTSIFALI: Robust red-wine grape found mainly on the island of Crete.

KOZMA CSVT 55: (No other details as yet other than it is derived from a Rayon d'Or x Perle von Csaba cross).

KOZMA CS.V 525: Moderately vigorous, quite hardy Hungarian red-wine variety derived from a Saperavi (Charni) x Blaufränkisch cross. Normally buds around mid-May, ripens around mid-September. (No other details as yet.)

KRAKUNA: V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS) and has the synonym name Krachuna. Mostly used in dry white wine blends along with Tsitska and Tsolikouri. Also makes a good varietal wine. (No other details as yet).

KRASSATO: Red-wine grape common to central Greece. Usually blended with two other grape wines, the Stavroto and Xynomavro.

KUNLEANY: (No other details other than according to the Geilweilerhof database above it is a complex (V.amurensis x V.vinifera) x Afus.Ali variety widely grown in Central Europe and Balkan states).

LACRIMA: Variety grown in the Marche region of Italy. Better known as Lacrima di Morro d'Alba. Used to create a purple-red wine that is described as having (in a good year) an aroma of violets, roses and spice with a rich, fruity taste and long finish.

LAGORTHI: White-wine producing variety indigenous to Greece. (No other details yet).

LAGREIN: Red wine variety found in Trentino-Alto Adige region of Italy. Used to make varietal and rosé wines of good character that can age well if from Bolzano region superior vintage years. Reported to grow well in Australia.

LAMBRUSCO: Red-wine grape cépage widely planted in Emilia region of central Italy. Produces a number of wine styles depending on the characteristics of the sub-variety, but mostly as dry or off-dry wines. When blended with wine made from the Ancellotta grape it produces a somewhat sweet, (ie: amabile), wine.

LASKI RIZLING: Local name in Slovenia (former Yugoslavia) for the Welschriesling grape.

LAUZAT: White-wine producing variety found in the foothills of the Pyrenees, France. Used in the distinctive blends of the Béarn AC along with other local varieties such as Baroque, Sémillon etc.

LEÁNYKA: Native, but well-known grape grown in Hungary. In Romania and Bulgaria an identical grape is known as the Feteasca. Used to make mildly intense semi-dry popular white wine.

LEFKAS: Grape variety indigenous to Cyprus. Used to produce local red-wine blend.

LEN DE L'EL: Minor local grape grown in the area southeast of Bordeaux in the Gaillac region of France. Used, along with Mauzac, to create sweet and sparkling white wine blends.

LERNATU: V.vinifera variety developed in the Ukraine from a (V.amurensis x V.vinifera) x Unknown variety. Has several synonyn names including Sev Lernatu. Currently under growing trials in the USA, Canada and several eastern european countries for use as a wine or table grape. (No other details as yet).

LIATIKO: Variety indigenous to Greece and used to create red wine. Also grown on the island of Crete where it is used either as a single variety or in a blend with Mandelaria grape-wine. According to the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) a seedless mutation of the subject variety, named Korinthiaki, is grown world-wide as a tablegrape under many synonym names including Black Corinth, Zante Currant and, renamed by some supermarkets in the USA, Champagne. Apparently needing Mediterranean heat it has been found to be a fairly difficult variety to mature in cool climate vineyards, prone to disease and needing special treatment with Gibberellic acid, trunk girdling (etc) in order to achieve consistent bunchsize results.

LIMBERGER: (see Blaufränkisch above). Also known as the Blauer Limberger or Lemberger. The latter name is used for the grape where found in Washington state in the U.S., which has sizable plantings of this variety at last report and it is currently recommended for the Finger Lakes region on New York State as a cold-hardy winegrape showing good yields and ripening in early to mid-October. Frequently used for blending with Pinot Noir. Wines made from this grape grown in N.W. America are described as being "Merlot-like with mild tannins and having a dark chocolate/raspberry flavor". Wines made from this grape reportedly have low levels of histamines. It is the normally higher amounts of this compound found in many other red wines that can cause allergy headaches in some people.

LIMNIO: Red-wine grape found mainly in the Aegean Island of Lemnos and also in N.E. Greece. Used to create acidic, robust wines with good aging potential.

LISTAN: White-wine grape now sparsely grown in France. Known as Palomino in Spain and South Africa where it is mainly used to produce fortified wines. A variety known as Listan Blanco is grown in the Canary Islands where it may be used with Listan Negro to produce red, rosé and white varietal wines for early consumption. Also grown in Australia where it is found in mixed growth vineyards along with the Pedro Ximénez grape. Known to be one of the parents of the Chasan grape cross.

LISTAN NEGRO: Red-wine variety grown in the Canary islands where it may be used in combination with Listan Blanco to create red or rosé wines.

LOUREIRO: White-wine grape grown widely in northern Portugal and known across the border in Galicia, Spain as the Loureira. Mainly used for "vinho verde" wines designed for early drinking.

LUGLIENGA BIANCA: Has many synonym names including Lignan Blanc. (No other details as yet other than it is reported as originating in Italy and is used as a wine or table grape).

MACERATINO: Grown mainly in the Marches region of Italy, this white-wine producer variety is usedto make a delicately flavored blend with Trebbiano grapewine. Has several alias names including Aribona and Uva Stretta.

MACABEO: (a.k.a Maccabeo). Widely grown in many regions of Spain and the Languedoc region of France, this variety is used to make mildly acidic and young white wines suitable for early consumption or incorporation into suitable blends. Also known in Spain by an alias name of Viura.

MADELEINE ANGEVINE: Also known as Madeline Angevine. Cool region table grape cross used for Riesling-type white table wine production in the United Kingdom and Germany. It is a cross between Madeleine Royale and Précoce de Malingre. Not only is it a widely grown variety in its own right but has claim to fame as one of the parents of the Siegerrebe and Comtessa varieties. Susceptible to bunch-rots.

MADELEINE ROYALE: (No other details as yet other than its claim to fame as one of the parents of Madeleine Angevine").

MADELEINE SYLVANER: Vinifera grape suitable for white-winemaking. Ripens early, with consequent susceptibility to attack by bunch rots, birds and wasps. Wine is aromatic and light, useful for blending with other intensely flavored wines. (No other details available as yet).

MAGLIOCCO CANINO: Red-wine variety grown on the Puglia region of Italy. Used as part of a seven wine complex blend. (No other details as yet).

MALAGONSIA: White-wine grape widely grown in northern Greece.

MALBEC: Semi-classic grape grown in the Bordeaux region of France and in other areas under the names Médoc Noir, Côt or Pressac, while in the Alsace it has the local name Auxerrois. Has an extensive current listing of more than 50 variety synonym names in the (above) Geilweilerhof database. Also grown in the cooler regions of California. The vine is widely planted in Argentina where it is being used to produce very popular varietal wines. (It is now thought that the variety known as Fer in that country is actually a Malbec clone). As a varietal it creates a rather intense, inky, red wine so it is also commonly used in blends, such as with Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, to create the renowned red French Bordeaux "claret" blend. In California and other areas it is increasingly being used for the same blending purpose.

MALVASIA: Semi-classic grape cépage of ancient, probably Greek, origin. Widely grown in Italy as distinctive area sub-varieties, such as Malvasia di Candia, Malvasia Istriana etc. Requires sheltered, Mediterranean climate conditions for perfect ripening. Used to produce dry and sweet white, and light red, wines with high alcohol content and residual sugar. Is one of two whitewine grapes allowable in Chianti Classico wine production. Also widely grown in Portugal, Spain and the island of Madeira where the important winename Malmsey is an English word corruption of Malvasia.

MALVOISIE: Minor grape found mainly in Corsica. Used to produce local, high-alcohol wines blended from grapes of mainly Spanish origin such as the Grenache and others. It has the local alias name of Fromentot where grown in the Ancenis region of France. The grape variety called Malvoisie in the Languedoc region of France is actually the Bourboulenc.

MAMMOLO: Mainly grown in Chianti DOC region of Tuscany, Italy. Red wine producing variety used in the various blends of the area. Has synonym name of Fegeri. (No other details as yet).

MANDELARIA: (a.k.a Amorgiano). Red-wine grape widely grown on the Eastern Mediterranean islands of Crete, Rhodes and Santorini.

MANDURIA: Alternate name for the Primitivo (di Gioia) grape now known to be the Zinfandel of California.

MANSENG: Appears as two clones, Gros Manseng and Petit Manseng, mainly to be found in the western regions of the Pyrenees area of southwest France. Used for producing both dry and sweet white wines.

MANTO NEGRO: Native red-wine grape indigenous to the island of Mallorca along with two others, Callet and Fogoneu. Used to make a strong, spicy wine with some aging ability. Currently most plantings occur on the Balearic Islands.

MANZONI 2-15: No other details as yet other than this variety, grown in the Friuli region of Italy, is reportedly the result of a cross between Prosecco and Cabernet Sauvignon).

MARIA GOMES: Synonym name for the Fernão Pires variety where found in the Bairrada region of Portugal. There it is used to make an agreeable white wine with apple and apricot fruit flavor reminders.

MARIENSTEINER: Vinifera variety developed at the Wurtzberg Institute, Germany in 1971. Is a Silvaner x Rieslaner cross. Vigorous, hardy, with early wood hardening. Used for creating white wines.

MARSANNE: Semi-classic grape used in the traditional white wine blends of the French Hermitage-Rhone region. With long barrel-aging in the past, these wines used to require about ten years in the bottle before drinking. The other grape wine used in the blend was the Roussanne. Also found on small acreages in Australia and Switzerland. In the latter country it has the synonym name Ermitage.

MARZEMINO: Grape variety used to make a red varietal reminiscent of Gamay type wine but with almond-taste undertones. Mainly restricted to the Trentino-Alto Adige region of Italy. Synonym names include Bassanino and Uva Tedesca. (No other details as yet).

MATARO: New World alias name for the Mourvedre grape variety. (See below).

MATRASSA: V.vinifera variety grown in south-central Europe and in the Caucasus region. Has several synonym names including Shirai Kara. Most commonly encountered as a varietal red wine from Georgia (CIS).

MAUZAC: Minor grape mainly grown in the Gaillac region southeast of Bordeaux in France. Used, with Len de l'El to create mildly sweet and sparkling white blended wines. It is also known in other regions under the local synonym name of Blanquette; (not to be confused with a similarly named grape grown in certain regions of Australia).

MAVRO: Grape variety common to Greece and Cyprus. Used to produce an unremarkable dark red varietal wine or, on Cyprus, a dry red blend with Opthalmo grapewine having limited aging ability.

MAVRODAPHNE: Red-wine grape widely grown in the Patras region on the north coast of the Peloponnese in southern Greece and either used to make a dry wine suitable for blending purposes, or, as also on the island of Rhodes, to make a moderately sweet, portlike, dessert wine.

MAZUELO: Alternate name for Carignan grape in Spain. (See above).

MELON DE BOURGOGNE: Identical to the Muscadet de Bourgogne grape. (See below).

MENCÍA: Light red wine variety widely grown in Galicia, N.W Spain. Has the synonym names Negra and Loureiro Tinto. Recently found (1999) by Spanish researchers to be identical with the variety Jaen, although some growers still insist the variety is a mutated version of Cabernet Franc.

MERLOT BLANC: Obscure, low prestige french cultivar used for white-wine blends. Currently thought to be unrelated in any way to the Merlot red-wine cépage.

MERWAL: White-wine grape found in the Bakaa Valley of Lebanon. Said to resemble Semillon when made into a dry wine. Used by Chateau Musar for blending with Obaideh grapewine to create an oaked wine capable of aging for between 5-10 years.

MESENICOLA (BLACK): (Information is incomplete on this red-wine grape grown in Greece).

MEUNIER: (Pronounced "muh-ny-ay"). Alternate name for Pinot Meunier. (See below).

MICHELE PALLIERI: (a.k.a Pallieri). Table grape derived from the vinifera crosses (also tablegrapes) Alphonse Lavallee and Red Malaga. Currently known to be grown in Chile and Venezuela. Care needs to be taken when choosing a suitable rootstock - (eg. the Alphonse Lavalee variety has been found to be incompatible with a Ramsey rootstock grafting by South African growers).

MILLERS BURGUNDY: Alias name for the Pinot Meunier grape of France where grown in Australia. Also has synonym names of Schwarzriesling and Black Riesling. Is a Pinot Noir clone widely grown for use in Champagne-style sparkling wine blends; probably imported from Germany where it is known as the Müllerebe grape.

MILLOCCIO: Minor grape mainly grown in Corsica and used in local high-alcohol wine blends along with Malvoisie and Sciacarello red wine grapes.

MISSION: Earliest grape planted in 17th century in what is now the state of California, where it is currently (1997) used to make several styles of wine - "Criolla" a tablewine, "Angelica", a very long-aged (50+ years) french Ratafia-like fortified wine and some late-harvest wines aged for 20+ years that are made from sun-dried grapes. Thought to have arrived in the America's by Spanish conquistadores importation. Known to be identical with the Pais grape widely grown in Chile and thought to originate from the Monica grape of Spain and Sardinia.

MICHURINETZ: East European extreme-winter hardy grape of astonishing vigor derived from numerous varieties of european vinifera, plus amurensis rootstock. The name is apparently an anglicized version of "Miczurinoweic". Currently planted on limited commercial/nursery acreage in the Finger Lakes region of W. New York (USA), Nova Scotia (Canada), British Columbia (Canada) and more widely in eastern Europe. Requires drastic cluster thinning of secondary late clusters and side shoots. Early shutdown prior to anticipated first frost can occur as much as a month before and results in fruit fall within days. Susceptible to fungus diseases Aspergillus, Powdery Mildew etc. Winter hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) this variety usually buds in late May. Capable of producing fine red Cabernet Sauvignon style wine in N. America when mature although currently, 1997/98, receiving mixed reviews because of tendency toward high acid and low sugar in less than good years. Regarded as quite similar to the Russian hybrid Cabernet Severnyi grapecross listed above.

MOLINARA: Acidic red wine grape mostly grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used to create the "Valpolicella" and "Bardolino" blends, along with the Rondinella and Corvina grape wines.

MOLL: Variety grown on the island of Mallorca, off the coast of Spain, and used to produce somewhat spicy white varietal still and sparkling wines. Has the synonym name Prensal Blanco.

MONASTRELL: (a.k.a Morrastel). Recent DNA evidence (3/98) suggests that the library varieties from UC Davis, California and Montpellier, France used in the tests are identical to Moristel and have no relationship to Mourvèdre.

MONBADON: (See Burger above).

MONDEUSE: (a.k.a Mondeuse Noir). Minor grape grown in the Savoie region of France. Usually blended with wine made from the Altesse grape to make the white wine known as "Roussette de Savoie". Some authorities consider the grape to be identical to the Refosco grape of Italy. Also recently identified as extensively present in many vineyard plantings of vines known as Petite Sirah in California. Considerable acreages are also found in Australia where the grape is (incorrectly ?) known as Refosco.

MONDEUSE BLANCHE: Variety grown in the Savoie and Buzet regions of France. Has several synonym names including Blanchette, Jongin and Molette. The latter name is used by the producers of a wine-blend, in combination with the Altesse variety, called "Seyssell" that is made in a "frizzante" style due to deliberate incomplete fermentation at the time of bottling.

MONEMVASIA: Greek name for the Malvasia white-wine grape renowned for making fortified Madeira wines on the island of that name. In Greece is often blended with Mandelaria grape-wine to give a strong, aromatic drink.

MONICA: Minor grape native to Sardinia. Made into both a dry, red wine and also a sweet, spicy red wine. Thought by some to be the antecedent of the Mission grape of early California fame.

MONTEPULCIANO (D'ABRUZZO): Important grape mostly found growing in central and southern Italy. Usually made into a blend with Sangiovese in order to produce a fruity, round, yet balanced red wine with attractive aroma that reportedly can improve with up to 6 years aging. Also used to produce a popular rosé named "Cerasuolo".

MONTILS: White-wine producing variety mainly used in the production of brandy-type fortified wines in Bordeaux, France, or the Rutherglen, N.E Victoria region of Australia. Synonyms are Aucarot and Chalosse.

MORAVIA AGRIA: Variety used to produce red wines in La Mancha province of Spain. Has synonym name Maravia Agria. (No other information as yet).

MORIO MUSCAT: Vinifera variety developed by Peter Morio at the Geilweilerhof Institute, Germany around 1961. Successfully grown in cool climate regions of the Northeast USA and Canada. Best results obtained in deep, humus-rich soil on a good site. Ripens later than Scheurebe around early to mid-season. Has extraordinary Muscat bouquet and flavor when fully ripened and so mostly used sparingly in white wineblends. Reportedly not a true Muscat but a Silvaner x Pinot Blanc cross.

MORISTEL: Red-wine producing grape grown in the Somontano region adjoining the central Pyrenees area of Spain. In southern Aragon it has the synonym name Juan Ibáñez. It produces light ruby red, floral, mildly tannic wine commonly used as a blending ingredient with uniquely regional native specialties such as Parraleta grapewine.

MORRO D'ALBA: (No other details other than it is a rare variety grown on small acreage in Piedmont, Italy and used to create a good quality red varietal dry wine).

MOSCADELLETTO: Medieval Tuscan grape variety still grown in minute commercial quantity. Used in producing a somewhat rustic, amber-colored "frizzante" series of sweet wines in the Montalcino DOC of Tuscany, Italy.

MOSCATEL DE ALEJANDRIA: Alternative name for Muscat of Alexandria grape when grown in Spain and Portugal.

MOSCATO DI CANELLI (see Muscat Blanc below).

MOSCOPHILERO: White-wine grape widely grown in the Peloponnese region of southern Greece and usually vinified to give a light, aromatic, dry varietal wine.

MOSLER: Austrian growers name for the hungarian Furmint grape.

MOSTOSA: Rare variety, used for white wine production, currently only found in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Has several synonym names including Pagadebito, Pagadebit (Gentile), Uva Barile and Vaccume. Used to make dry and sweet varietal wines of delicate style. May be a synonym name for the variety Biancone.

MOURISCO PRETO: Red-wine variety grown in Australia and used to produce Port-type fortified wines.

MOURVÈDRE: Robust mediterranean hot climate grape variety widely grown in the southern Rhone region of France and mainly used to introduce color and body to the red wine blends. Normally ripens in mid-October, ie. a week or so after Carignan. Select limited plantings occur in California where the variety is often called the Mataro, a relationship recently confirmed (3/98) by DNA analysis at UC Davis, and are used to produce a wine that sometimes develops the "green tea-like" herbal character that Rhone region french growers refer to as "animalé". Common aliases, probably due to early mis-identification, in Australia are Mataro, Morrastel and Graciano. The cultivar known as Monastrell that is grown in Spain and previously thought to be identical is not related.

MTSVANE (KAHETINSKII): V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has several synonym names including Mtsvane and Goruli Mtsvane. Used mainly in white wine blends, along with Rkatsiteli wine, that include a well-regarded aged dry version named "Tsinandali" and others. (No other details as yet other than this variety is under trial by some growers in Victoria, Australia).

MUDZHURETULI: V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has the synonym name Keduretuli. Used to create a varietal rosé and (in combination with the Alexsandreuli variety wine) semi-sweet or semi-dry blends. (No other details as yet).

MÜLLEREBE: Translates as "Millers Grape". Alias name for the Pinot Meunier grape of France. (See below).

MÜLLER-THURGAU: Early ripening cross once thought to have been developed from Sylvaner and Riesling but some authorities now contend, based on DNA analysis, that it is a Chasselas, not Sylvaner, cross with Riesling. The possibility is plausible given that Dr. Müller was born, worked and resided in Switzerland, home of the Chasselas grape. Produces a flowery, yet acidic white wine that bears a modest resemblance to the parent Riesling grapewine. Widely planted in Europe, New Zealand and some parts of the cooler Northern regions of N. America. Claimed by some to reach optimum condition in the Alpine regional wines of Italy. Known as Rivaner in parts of Europe. Known to be one of the parent varieties from which the Bacchus grape was derived. A mutated version having considerable popularity is known as the Findling in the Lake Geneva region of Switzerland and the Mosel/Saar/Ruwer region of Germany.

MUSCADELLE: (a.k.a Muscadelle de Bordelais). Semi-classic grape grown in the Gaillac region of France, about 100 miles southeast of Bordeaux, and used in local white sweet wine blends. Incorrectly called Sauvignon Vert in California. Winemakers in the Rutherglen, N.E Victoria region of Australia use it to produce a superb sweet dessert wine known as "Liqueur Tokay of Australia", the name being due to the mistaken early belief that the Tokaji wines of Hungary were made from this grape.

MUSCADET DE BOURGOGNE: (a.k.a Melon de Bourgogne). Productive cool-climate grape widely grown on the Atlantic seaboard of the Loire region of France. The juice goes into the making of the dry, tart white wine that is famous as "Muscadet de Sevres et Maine" or is distilled. The wine is light and fresh with distinctive fruit in good vintage years and best consumed while young. Also found in California because recent research indicates some plantings of this cultivar may have been mis-named Pinot Blanc. Confusion with Chardonnay sometimes results because the latter grape has several synonyms that include the word "Melon".

MUSCAT DR. HOOG: No other details as yet other than it is listed by the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) as grown in central Europe and used mainly as a tablegrape. May be the heavy-cropping english tablegrape variety known as (Muscat) Dr. Hogg where grown in the warmer regions of New Zealand and used to make an aromatic white blending wine.

MUSCARDIN: Minor grape grown in the southern Rhone region of France and used to create color and body in red wine blends.

MUSCAT BLANC: (a.k.a Muskateller in Austria and Germany, Brown Muscat or Brown Frontignac in the Rutherglen, N.E Victoria region of Australia, Muscat Lunel in Hungary, Muscadel in South Africa, Muscat Frontignan in France and in Italy as the Moscato di Canelli) resulting from the wide use of variants with different colored skins. They are all members of the Muscat Blanc à Petite Grains cépage family. Used mainly for making semi-sweet and sweet dessert wines. May be the oldest known grape, having a documented history of growth around the Mediterranean for many centuries. Should not be confused with the Muscat of Alexandria, the grape with a similar ancient history of growth around the Mediterranean.

MUSCAT FLEUR D'ORANGER: White-wine producing variety probably yet another mutant clone of Muscat Blanc above. Has over thirty synonym names according to the Geilweilerhof database (above), including Fior d'Arancio (found in the Veneto region of Italy), Orange Muscat, Malvoisier and, in Australia, Orange Flora.

MUSCAT FRONTIGNAN: (See Muscat Blanc above).

MUSCAT HAMBURG: According to the Geilweilerhof (Genres) database, see above, this variety was derived from a Schiava Grossa x Muscat of Alexandria cross. Has over 30 synonym names, including Black Hamburg, Golden Hamburg, Hampton Court Vine, Queen's Arbor and Venn's Seedling. Widely grown white-wine producing variety also suitable as a table grape. Generally considered to produce aromatic mediocre wines mostly suitable for blending although some rosés are produced. Popular in Greece (see Moschato Hamburg), and also in Tianjin, China where it is blended with Sylvaner and Welschriesling to make a semi-dry wine known as "Dynasty".

MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA: (a.k.a Chasselas Musque in France, Muscat Gordo Blanco or Lexia in Australia and Hanepoot in South Africa). Ancient grape species with many synonym names suitable for similar Mediterranean growing climates as the Muscat Blanc above. Makes sweet wines that are usually judged of inferior quality compared to those of the Muscat Blanc cépage varieties. The main use in California is for producing table grapes and raisins. Also widely grown in Spain, where it is called Moscatel de Alejandria, and Portugal where winemakers in the latter country use it to make "Moscatel de Setubal" sweet wine.

MUSCAT OTTONEL: Mid-19th century cross thought to be between the Chasselas and a Muscat varietal grape. Fairly widely grown in the cooler regions of central and eastern Europe where it is best utilized as a late harvest white wine. Promising results from trials of the clone NY 62.122.1 are reported in the Finger Lakes region of Western N.Y. where it reportedly has similar cold hardiness characteristics to those of the Gewürtraminer. Moderately resistant to bunchrot it usually ripens in early-mid September.

MUSKAT KRYMSKII: Also has synonym name Muskatel, and in Bulgaria, Misket or Mishket. This variety is reported as entirely unrelated to the Muscat family. Widely grown in the Ukraine and other eastern european countries where it is used to produce an aromatic white wine for use as a varietal or as a component of a blend. (No other details as yet).

NAPA GAMAY: The Napa Gamay as grown in California is for the most part identical with the Valdeguié grape grown in France. However some vineyards in the state are now suspected of containing considerable amounts of the true Beaujolais Gamay Noir à jus Blanc varietal clone previously mistakenly thought to be Napa Gamay.

NASCO (BIANCO): Ancient variety grown and used for dry and sweet white wines in S.W. Sardinia. (No other details as yet).

NEGOSKA: Red wine grape common to Macedonia, N.E. and Central Greece. Usually used as a wine that is blended with Xynomavro grape-wine.

NEGRARA: Red wine producing variety grown in the Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto regions of Italy. Best known for its inclusion in Bardolino DOC wine blends. Has several synonym names but is of little interest as a varietal wine.

NEGRETTE: Minor grape grown in the region about 100 miles southeast of Bordeaux, France. Used for red wine and rose' blends along with Gamay Noir, Syrah and Duras grapes. The grape is thought by some to be known as Pinot St. George in California.

NEGROAMARO: Widely grown in the Apulia (Puglia) region of southern Italy this grape is used to produce the base wine of the "Salice di Salento" and other red wine blends of good repute and aging potential.

NERELLO (CAPPUCCIO): Grape variety currently grown extensively in Puglia region of Italy and also in Sicily where it is used as a constituent of red wine blends. Considered by some to be slightly inferior to the Nero d'Avola in taste and aging ability.

NERETTA CUNEESE: Fairly rare red-wine grape indigenous to Valsusa DOC, Piemonte region of Italy. Has over 20 synonym names, including Costiola. Used in a blend with Barbera and two other varieties to give a semi-sweet (?) wine. (No other details as yet).

NERO D'AVOLA: (a.k.a Calabrese). Used as one of the wines blended into a well-regarded Sicilian red wine with complex aromas capable of aging well.

NEUBURGER: Minor grape of unknown origin thought by some to be a cross between Sylvaner and Pinot Blanc. Suitable for growing in a wide range of soils including heavy or chalky areas but prefers granite content. Shows a tendency towards Coulure, ie. poor fruit set with immature berries falling off after veraison (blossoming). Widely grown in sections of the Burgenland and Wachau regions, and other areas, of Austria producing soft, full-bodied wines with nutlike aroma. Also commonly used in white wine blends such as are found in Gumpoldkirchen.

NIÈDDERA: Red wine variety grown in western Sardinia. Used to make an aromatic, dry, fruity wine with some aging ability. (No other details as yet).

NIELLUCCIO: Red-wine grape used in a Corsican blend including Cinsault, Grenache and Sciacarello produced in the Calvi region.

NOBLESSA: Low vigor cultivar resulting from a cross between Madeleine Angevine and Silvaner. Has moderate cold hardiness and is resistant to many diseases. Early September ripening. Claimed to produce good quality white wine.

NOBLING: (No details as yet other than it is grown in the Valais district of Switzerland and is a white-wine producing variety cross with Silvaner x Chasselas parentage created at Freiburg, Germany.)

NOIR HATIF DE MARSEILLE: Ancient french variety grown on limited acreages in central Europe under several synonym names including Muscat Noir Hatif Marsella. Reportedly lacking vigor and producing only moderate to low yield, the grape quality is regarded by some as well suited for cool climate trials as a red-wine producer vine. (No other details as yet).

NOSIOLA: White-wine grape used to produce local, early drinking, light wines in the Trentino-Alto Aldige and Veneto regions of N.E. Italy. Has several synonym names including Durello, Rabiosa, Cagnina and Durella.

NOTRE VIGNE: Mystery red-wine grape grown in a single Wairarapa (N.Z) region vineyard and designated as an unknown ID after examination by ampelographers and subjection to some DNA testing. Initially believed to be, and planted as, the variety Shiraz. Has some characteristics that suggest a relationship to Trousseau (Noir). Creates a dark, brambly red wine that is very ripe, warm and powerful in style.

NURAGUS: Indigenous grapevine variety grown in S.W. Sardinia. Has several synonym names including Abbondosa and Axina. Used mainly as a dry varietal wine suitable for seafood dish accompaniment.

OBAIDEH: White-wine grape grown in the Bakaa Valley of Lebanon. Claimed by some to be the ancestor of the Chardonnay grape. Used by Chateau Musar as a blending wine with Merwal to create an oaked wine capable of aging for 5-10 years.

ODZHALESHI (MECHVELIANIS): V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has synonym name Svanuri. Used to create a red wine. (No other details as yet).

OLIVELLA: Red-wine grape grown in Campania, Italy and used in the "Lachryma Christi del Vesuvio" Neapolitan area red wine blend along with the Piedirosso and Aglianico grapewines.

ONDARRABI BELTZA: Variety grown in the Chacoli de Guetaria (ie. Basque "Getariako Txakolina") D.O located in the Basque northeast section of Spain, between the town of San Sebastián and the french border. According to the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) it has several synonym names, including Negra. The latter name is also a synonym for the Mencia variety and so raises a complex question of possible relatedness as the mutated version of Cabernet Franc, also known as Bouchy, imported from France along the "Pilgrims Way" as some insist. Label names also include spelling variations such as Hundarribi Beltza and Hondarrobi Beltza. (No other details as yet other than this variety is used in the production of aromatic, intense red, rosé and blended white wines).

ONDARRABI ZURI: Variety used for white wine production in the Basque region, referred to immediately above under Ondarrabi Beltza, of northeast Spain between San Sebastián and the french border. According to the Geilweilerhof database (see Foreword above) has several synonym names, including Zuria. Also label names may be variously spelt as Hundarribi Zuri or Hondarrobi Zuri etc. (No other details as yet other than the wine is commonly made into an intense, aromatic varietal or a version known as "Txomin Etxánex", a frizzante-style white wine more generally referred to as "Txakoli").

ONDENC: White-wine cultivar grown in France. Translocated to Australia where it is known under the alias names of Sercial and Irvines White.

OPTHALMO: Red-wine grape common to Greece and Cyprus. Used to produce a Rosé as a varietal or, on Cyprus, as the lighter component in a blend with Mavro grapewine having limited aging ability.

OPTIMA: Has synonym name Geisenheim 33-13-113. Recent crossing of (Riesling x Sylvaner) x Müller-Thurgau varieties. Widely grown in the Mosel-Saar-Ruwer region of Germany and used for blending purposes in the white wines of the region. Limited acreages also found in other cool climate regions such as New Zealand.

ORANIENSTEINER: (No information on this grape at present other than it is a white-wine producing variety released by the Geisenheim Research Institute in 1985 and is the result of a Riesling x Silvaner (Gruen) crossing. Has the synonym names Geisenheim 11-34 and Hochkroner).

ORTEGA: Grape cross between Müller-Thurgau and Siegerrebe varieties. Used for white wine blending in the Rheinhessen region of Germany. Produces flavorful wines that have earned the Prädikat rating in good vintages. Ripens early-mid September. Cold-hardy and has good resemblance to the Riesling grape with which it is often blended in order to enhance flavor in poor vintages.

ORTRUGA: White-wine producer variety found in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Used to make a light, dry or sweet wine varietal/blend usually drunk when young. Has several synonym names including Altruga, Barbesino and Vernesina.

OSELETA: Comparatively rare variety grown in the Veneto region of Italy. Currently used by some producers to create a more traditional blend of the red "Valpolicella" wine with Corvina etc. (No other details as yet).

OSELOT: Variety reportedly used to create red wine in Friuli region of Italy. (No other details as yet).

OSIRIS: Vinifera variety developed at the Wurzburg Institute, Germany. Derived from a Riesling x Rieslaner cross. Fruit is seen as quite similar to the former parent, ripening before Müller Thurgau. Used to create a white wine claimed to have fine bouquet and grape harmonious acidity.

OSTEINER: White-wine creating cultivar developed at the Geisenheim Research Institute resulting from a cross of Riesling x Sylvaner. Has synonym name Geisenheim 9-97. Currently found on limited acreages in the Otago region of the South Island of New Zealand).

PAIS: Widely grown in Chile, this grape is identical with the Mission grape of California and Mexico and the Criolla Chica of the Argentine.

PALAS: V.vinifera variety developed and reported as released in November, 1999 by the Weinsberg/Württemberg Research Station, Baden, Germany. Has synonym name WE 69-633-14F. Derived from a Rubin x Trollinger cross. Variety is claimed to be late-ripening, producing dark red juice suitable as a cuvee component. (No other details as yet).

PALOMINO: White-wine grape, mostly used for Sherry-type fortified wines, widely grown in Spain and South Africa. Identical to the Listan variety found in France. Also found in Australia and California where it is also used mainly to produce fortified wines. The grape was once thought to be the Golden Chasselas, a table grape, where grown in California. The wine-must has tendency to oxidize quickly, a characteristic that can be ignored when used for sherry production.

PAMBAKINA: Red-wine grape indigenous to Cyprus. Used to produce dry varietal wine.

PARELLADA: Red-wine grape found in the Penedés region of Spain and used to make popular red and rosé cava wines.

PARRALETA: Rare native red wine grape still grown in the Central Pyrenees region of Somontano, Spain. Traditionally used to make a varietal wine or blend with Moristel grapewine; having intense color, high phenol, acidity and potential alcohol content. Noted for aromatic flavors. The vine is vigorous with medium productivity, giving round mid-sized berries in small medium-compact bunches. Reportedly there are no known synonyms or record of plantings elsewhere.

PECORINO: Red-wine variety grown in the Puglia region of Italy. Has several synonym names including Arquitano, Mosciolo and Vissanello. (No other details as yet).

PEDRO XIMÉNEZ: White-wine producer variety widely grown in south-central Spain and mainly used in the production of sweet Sherry fortified wines. Also found in Australia where it is used, along with Palomino, to produce fortified wines and has the occasionally used alias name of Baxter's Sherry.

PELAVERGA (PICCOLO): Red wine variety grown in the Verduna DOC, Piedmont region of Italy. Also known as Carola, Fra Germano and Taddone. Ripens in early October. (No other details as yet).

PELOURSIN: Almost extinct French red-wine grape recently identified as one of the varieties whose DNA is present in the Durif and Petite Sirah varieties of France and California and, until recently, at the center of an identification controversy.

PERDIN: Tablegrape of unknown pedigree grown and occasionally used for making homemade white wines by home gardeners of Paris, France. (No other details as yet).

PEREL: Complex vinifera cultivar with Perle von Csaba prominent in its pedigree. Currently mainly grown in South Africa for use as a tablegrape. (No other details available as yet).

PERLAN: Synonym name in the Mandement district of Switzerland for the Chasselas grape.

PERLE VON CSABA: (a.k.a Pearl of Zala). Vinifera derived grape propagated mainly for table use. Very early ripening, (usually late August), it has a light Muscat flavor. Mainly grown in Central Europe and the N.W. regions of the USA and in British Columbia, Canada. Also one of the parent varieties of the Queen of the Vineyard cross that ripens around mid-September, and also Perel, both useful as tablegrapes.

PERLETTE: Tablegrape derived from a cross of Sultanina and Queen of the Vineyard tablegrape, commonly grown in Germany and France. Occasionally used for home white winemaking by home gardeners. Has synonym name of Perlet. (No other details as yet).

PERIQUITA: Alias name for Castelão Francês grape where grown in the Estremadura region of Portugal. Makes popular, robust red wine.

PETIT BOUSCHET: Early 19th century vinifera cross by Bouschet Père in France. Derived from Aramon and Teinturier du Cher. Used to create mediocre deep red wines for use in coloring blends. The Geilweilerhof Database (above) lists over thirty synonym names for this variety.

PETIT ROUGE: Has synonym name Orion Gris. V.vinifera red-wine creating variety sparsely grown in the Valle d'Aosta region of N.E Italy. Reportedly capable of aging well, developing fine aromas and balanced flavors. Currently blended with Fumin varietal wine by one winery to create the deeply colored "Vin de La Sabla" wine. Not to be confused with the french-american hybrid Orion cultivar.

PETITE SIRAH: Historically has been something of a "mystery" vine. When first imported into California this variety somehow acquired the subject name possibly as a result of a labeling error confusing it with Petite Syrah. Is now a widely grown grape variety in California that a recent DNA analysis report, (Meredith, C.P, et al., Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50(3):236-42 1999), has shown to have a very high probability of being derived from the cross of a Peloursin seedling with the variety Syrah, both grown in the Rhone region of France. It has subsequently been identified as (and is therefore a synonym name for) the variety named Durif (in honor of the developer) chosen and recorded in France around the early 1880's. Traditional Californian wine blends under the name of Petite Sirah are known to have contained a proportion of Barbera or Zinfandel grapewine. Suffice to say that, whatever the provenance of the grapevine(s) currently known as Petite Sirah, they produce dark red, tannic wines in the warmer regions of California, used mainly as backbone for Central Valley "jug" wines. In the cooler northern regions, where many very old vines still exist, it is often made into a robust, balanced red wine of considerable popularity.

PETIT VERDOT: Grape grown in limited amounts. Found mainly in the temperate Bordeaux region St.Émilion subdistrict and used to make a red wine later blended with other famous Bordeaux varietal wines. Recommended for growing in the State of Virginia. Has higher titratable acid and is slightly more cold-hardy than Cabernet Sauvignon, ripening around the same time in mid-late October.

PICARDAN (NOIR): Synonym name for Cinsaut variety where grown in the southern Rhone region of France. Occasionally used in red wine blends but finding less favor in the last decades of the 20th century.

PICARDAN (BLANC): Listed as a synonym name, by the international grape variety database (above) at Geilweilerhof, Germany, for the Bourboulenc white wine producing variety grown in the southern Rhone and Provence regions of France. (No other details as yet).

PIQUEPOUL (BLANC): Synonym name for Folle Blanche variety where grown in the Languedoc region of France. Used for creating vinosity and freshness in the regional white wine blends. Also has the alias name Picpoul. In the Cotes de St-Mont VDQS zone adjoining the Madiran AC of SW France it is known as the Meslier. In Spain the variety has the name Picapoll. Also has synonym names Avello and Picpoule Blanc.

PIQUEPOUL (NOIR): (No details as yet).

PIEDIROSSO: Red-wine grape grown in Campania, Italy. Reportedly has synonym name Pere'e Pallummo. Used as a blending wine in the Naples area product known as "Lachryma Christi del Vesuvio" along with Olivella and Aglianico grapewines.

PIGNOLETTO: White-wine producing variety found in Northern and Central Italy. Has several synonym names including Uva Grilli. Used to make dry wines said to have a resemblance to Riesling Italico, and some sweet/sparkling varietals.

PIGNOLO: Variety used to produce DOC sturdy red wine, with some aging ability, in the Friuli region of N.E. Italy. Has nearly a dozen synonym names including Ribolo that possibly is an alias name for the Ribolla (Nera) variety. (No other details as yet).

PINEAU D'AUNIS: (a.k.a Aunis). Ancient and increasingly rare variety used to create good rosé and red wines in the Touraine and Anjou-Saumur AOC's of the Loire region in France. Has the synonym name Chenin Noir in California.

PINELLO: Also known as Pinella. Indigenous white-wine variety grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used to create a sweet varietal or spumante-type wine in the Colli Eugenei DOC.

PINENC: Minor grape grown in the Pyrenees region of France and one of the grapes used to create a red wine blend known as "Madiran". The grape is also known as Fer, (or Fer Servadou) and also, in other regions of France, is named Brocol or Braucol. The other grapewines in the "Madiran" blend are the Bouchy, Courbu and Tannat grapes. In Argentina the grape known as Fer is thought to be a clone of the Malbec grape.

PINOTAGE: Cultivar widely grown and successful in South Africa since its release in in 1925. Also currently grown in California (USA), Canada and Zimbabwe. Derived from the crossing of Pinot Noir x Cinsaut. Used to make a popular, hearty red wine that ages well - (and often requires it). Reportedly grown in some quantity on New Zealand's North Island where it is used to produce flavorsome, early-maturing wines that are considerably less concentrated/complex than South African versions.

PINOT BIANCO: Italian version of the grape known as Pinot Blanc. Grown mainly in the Trentino and Fruili regions of Italy. Usually made into a fresh, fruity white wine.

PINOT BLANC: Mutation of the Pinot Gris vine. Grape is generally used to make dry, crisp, rather intense white wines in the Alsace, parts of Burgundy and in Austria. In the latter country it is known as the Weissburgunder. In California, a similarly named grape is used to make a fruity, rather subtle wine similar to the simpler versions of Chardonnay. Used in many of the better champagne style sparkling wines of California because of its acid content and clean flavor. However, recent research speculates that some plantings of this California grown grape variety are actually the Melon de Bourgogne, (a.k.a Muscadet de Bourgogne), a grape grown widely in the western reaches of the Loire region of France, and famous for producing the "Muscadet" tart white wines that match so well with shellfish meals.

PINOT GRIGIO: (Pronounced "pee-nOH gree-zOH"). Synonym name of the Pinot Gris where grown in Italy. Planted extensively in the Venezia and Alto-Adige regions where it can produce crisp, dry wines with good acid "bite". (Also see below).

PINOT GRIS: Mutant clone of Pinot Noir grown in western coastal regions of the U.S.A. and ripening earlier than Chardonnay in mid-late September. Currently, 1997, also recommended for Michigan and New York Finger Lakes growers. Several clones available that seem to vary in resistance to bunch rots. Ohio researchers are currently (1999) testing clone #143 using rootstocks 3309 and 101-14. Also called Fromentau, Malvoisie or Pinot Beurot in the Loire, and the former name in the Languedoc, regions of France. In Germany and Austria it is known as the Ruländer or Grauer Burgunder where it is used to make pleasant, young, white wines in the southern regions. Similar aliases are used in the german settled regions of Australia. In northeastern Italy it is known as Pinot Grigio. Versions named Auxerrois Gris and Tokay d'Alsace are also grown in the Alsace where the latter variety is used to make a golden-yellow wine with aromatic, fruity flavors that improves with a couple of years in the bottle - (but not to be confused with the Hungarian Furmint grape used to make the famous "Tokaji" sweet wines).

PINOT MEUNIER: (Pronounced "pee-noh muh-ny-ay"). (a.k.a Meunier). Clone of Pinot Noir cépage. Is late-budding and matures earlier than Pinot Noir with larger clusters. Widely grown in the Champagne (Aube) region of France. Used in a blend with Chardonnay to make "Blanc de Noir" style sparkling wines. In the Finger Lakes region of New York state it has the alias name Black Riesling. Where grown in Germany it has the alias name Müllerebe. A mutation of this grape known as the Samtrot, notable for characteristics closer to Pinot Noir clones, is also cultivated in certain N. American vineyards and Germany. Also grown in Australia where it shares the name Meunier with other aliases such as Millers Burgundy and Schwarzriesling.

PINOT NERO: Clone of Pinot Noir, used to make light red wines from grapes mainly found in the Friuli-Venezia-Giulia region of Italy.

PINOT PRÉCOCE: V.vinifera variety widely grown in Europe. Seems to be of ancient origin, possibly a mutant clone of Pinot Noir. Has over 40 synonym names listed in the Geilweilerhof database (see above), including Früburgunder (or Fruheburgunder). (No other details as yet).

PINOT ST. GEORGE: Grape found on small acreages in California and now thought to be identical to the Negrette of southern France. (See above).

PLANTA FINA DE PETRALBA: No other details as yet other than this aromatic white-wine variety has several synonym names including (in South Africa) Kanaan. Is also grown in France and Spain.

PLESCHATIK: (No other details as yet other than it is used to produce a dark red, tannic wine in Georgia, CIS.)

PONTAC: A red-wine grape variety that behaves as a teinturier colorant and originally native to south-west France but, at last report, now only to be found on small acreages in the Constantia region of South Africa. Used by a few wineries to produce a varietal version and the historically interesting "Constantia" sweet wine blend with wines made from Orange Muscat grapes.

PORTUGAL MALBEC: (See Tinta Amarela below).

PORTUGIESER: Also known as the Blau Portugieser in Austria where it is grown and used to make a somewhat bland, dark red, medium-bodied wine.

POSIP: White-wine producing variety widely grown in southern Dalmatia region of Croatia. (No other details as yet).

POULSARD: Black-skinned variety grown in eastern France. Used to produce a light-red wine with attractive flowery aroma useful as a blending agent for enhancing less flavorsome local wines.

POZSONYI: Variety grown in Central Europe, best known as one of the parents of the cross Irsai Olivér. Has synonym names Feher Dinka and Feher Kadarka. (No other details as yet).

PRÉCOSE DE MALINGRE: Has several synonym names, including Frueher Malingre and Malingre Précose. Variety with long history in France. Described as having shrubby growth that responds best when pruned to six bud spurs as opposed to normal cane pruning. Very early ripening and recommended for cool sites. Used to make a light white wine.

PRËMETTA: Indigenous variety grown in only one vineyard in the Valle d'Aosta region of Italy. Used to make an acclaimed light red, almost onion-skin, varietal wine having a spicy (cloves) aroma, good mouth-fillng palate and decidedly tannic finish. Has synonym name Primaticcio.

PRIETO PICUDO: Variety grown in Castilla-León province of Spain. Mainly used in the production of red wines known as "clarete". (No other details as yet).

PRIMITIVO (DI GIOIA): Minor variety mainly confined to Apulia in southern Italy where it is used to produce a heavy, robust portlike red wine made from raisined grapes. A recent Italian report tentatively links this grape to some mutated members of the Vranac variety grown in Montenegro, part of what remains of former Yugoslavia. There is also another clonal contender. The widely grown Plavac Mali cépage, also known as Mali Plavac, variety found in Dalmatia - (a province of Croatia, also part of the former Yugoslavia) - contains several mutated varieties. According to a recent report, (7/98), one or more of these appear to share some DNA characteristics with Primitivo indicating a possible parental *or* offspring relationship. In California, where it is now believed to have been translocated via purchase from a historically interesting plant and seed merchant on Long Island in New York State during the mid-19th century, - (see "A History of Wine in America" by Thomas Pinney, 1989) - it is famous as one of that states most popular winegrape varieties - Zinfandel.

PROSECCO: Minor grape grown in Veneto region of northern Italy and generally used to make both crisp, dry whites and also sparkling sweet wines having a uniquely perfumed aroma and nutlike flavor nuance in the better versions. Where locally found under the synonym name Serprina it is usually a varietal, or may be blended with Verdiso grapewine.

PRUGNOLO GENTILE: Alternative name for Sangiovese Grosso grape. (See below).

PUTZSCHEERE: (a.k.a Putscher). Wine/table grape native to Hungary and also grown in other countries of eastern Europe under many synonyms. Also found in California where it has the alias name Green Hungarian. Used to produce a bland white wine mainly used for blending.

QUEEN OF THE VINEYARD: (See Perle von Csaba above).

RABANER: Derived from a Riesling 88 x Riesling 64 cross. Mostly confined to the Mosel region of Germany, this variety has moderate vigor limited yield and ripens at the same time as its parent. (No other details as yet).

RABIOSA: Synonym name for Nosiola variety. (See above).

RABO DE OVELHA: Variety used for white wine production throughout Portugal. Has the synonym name Rabigato that, itself under the alias name of Boal/Bual, is one of at least three other varieties used in the production of the fortified wines for which the island of Madeira is famous. On the mainland these varieties are used in several wine blends, including some in the Bucelas DOC, Extremadura region of Portugal where the Arinto grapewine is the main ingredient of a blend that also includes Esgana Cão grapewine.

RABOSO: Red-wine grape used to produce young-drinking local wines in the Piave region near Venice, Italy. (No other details yet).

RAISIN DE PALESTINE: Reported as an Australian developed variety accessioned around 1956. Used as a wine or tablegrape. (No other details as yet other than it may be the variety also known as Chasselas Raisin de Palestine).

RAMISCO: Unique to Portugal, this red-wine producing variety is grown in the Colares region on the Atlantic coast not far from Lisbon. Used to make an intense, tannic wine with prominent spicelike aroma and taste components. Claimed to need ten or more years of cellaring for maximum enjoyment.

RÄUSCHLING: Ancient minor grape still sparsely grown in the Alsace region of France. Used occasionally in the "Vin d'Alsace" generic white wine blends along with other wines made from the Knipperle, Chasselas, and Müller-Thurgau grapes. Also grown within the environs of Zurich canton, Switzerland and used to produce a discreetly fruity, elegantly acidic white varietal wine.

REFOSCO: Ancient native grape grown in Friuli-Venezia-Giuia region of Italy. Has many synonym names in Italy and surrounding countries, including Canina (Nera) and Terrano. Made into what is often considered to be a robust, very intense red wine with moderate complexity that can match the heartiest meal course. According to Pliny the Elder the favorite wine of Livia, second wife of Augustus Caesar, was created from this grape. Limited plantings are also to be found in the cooler coastal regions of Australia and California. Some think the Savoie region Mondeuse variety of France is identical.

REICHENSTEINER: White-wine grape mainly grown on small acreages in Germany, England and New Zealand. Derived from the Müller-Thurgau cross and a couple of modern table-grape crosses. Used, among other things, to produce wine of mediocre complexity useful for blending etc.

RÈZE: Ancient indigenous variety once common in the Valais region of Switzerland. Thought to have been Roman in origin. Now almost unknown due to its excessive acidity, other than as "Vin du Glacier Gletscherwein" the extraordinarily old, oxidized wooded white offered in minute amounts to special visitors.

RIBOLLA GIALLA: Indigenous to the Friuli-Venezia Guilia region of N.E. Italy, this white wine grape is mainly used as a varietal or in blends suitable for early consumption. Thought by some to be identical with the Robola variety of Greece. Is also known under the synonym name of Avola. Has good varietal citrus aroma/character flavor with short term aging ability in good vintage years.

RIBOLLA NERA: Ancient indigenous variety grown in the Friuli-Venezia Guilia region of Italy. Has synonym names Pocalza and Schioppettino. Used to create a popular varietal red wine with some aging ability that some liken to certain lesser Syrah's of the Rhone region of France.

RIESLANER: Riesling x Silvaner cross variety. Has two synonym names - Mainriesling and Wuerzburg. Grown in Ungstein region of the Pfalz, Germany, for limited amounts of Beerenauslese (BA) quality sweet white wine production.

RIESLING RENANO: Alternative name used in Italy for the German Riesling grape.

RITINO: (No other details other than it is a red-wine variety grown in Greece).

RIVANER: Alternative name for the Müller-Thurgau grape cross currently widely grown in Luxembourg.

RKATSITELI: (Pronounced "ar-kat-si-TEL-lee"). In Georgia (CIS) it has the synonym name Rkatsiteii. Widely grown in eastern Europe, this ancient vinifera reputedly originated in the Caucasus Mountains bordering Armenia and Turkey. Planted on small acreages in Australia and the Eastern U.S., mainly in the Finger Lakes region of New York state. Makes noticeably acidic, balanced white wine with flavors somewhat reminiscent of an aromatic Gewürztraminer and (Johannisberg) Riesling blend.

ROBOLA: White-wine grape used to create strong, citrus flavored dry wines found mainly on the islands, (e.g: Cephalonia), off the west coast of Greece. Probably known/grown in Italy as the Ribolla Gialla.

RODITIS: (a.k.a Rhoditis). White-wine grape widely grown in central Greece. Usually blended with the Savatiano and Assyrtiko grape-wines in order to create "Retsina", the ubiquitous resinated wine associated with Greece.

ROLLE: White-wine grape mainly grown in the Provence region of France. Thought to have originated from an ancient grape imported by the first Phocean Greek settlers around 500 BC, the grape is used to create a crisp, almost pungent white wine mostly consumed in the Bellet area of the Cote d'Azur.

ROMORANTIN: Rare grape, introduced in the 16th century, grown near Chambord in the Loire et Cher region of France and used to produce local dry, white "Cour Cheverny" wine blend.

RONDINELLA: Red wine grape mainly grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used in blends such as "Valpolicella" and "Bardolino". The main grape used for these blends is the Corvina.

RONDO: Winter hardy red wine vitis vinifera hybrid cross created at Geisenheim, Germany between St. Laurent and Saperavi Severnyi. Has synonym name of Geisenheim 6494-5. Used to create a vinous, full-bodied, color stable wine, with good tannins and character, suitable for blend-enhancing purposes. (No other details as yet other than it is gaining popularity among growers in the United Kingdom).

ROSSESE: Ancient grape variety found in the Liguria region of Italy. Has synonym name of Bianco di Nizza. Makes good value light red wine best drunk when newly released.

ROSSIGNOLA: Better known under its synonym name of Gropello, this variety is grown in the Lombardy and the Veneto regions of Italy. Optional ingredient in Valpolicella red wine blends along with Corvina and Rondinella.

ROTER VELTLINER: Minor variety grown on limited acreages in Austria. Used to make a white varietal wine possessing good acidity and aging potential. Not related in any way to the Grüener Veltliner variety.

ROTBERGER: Result of a cross with the Trollinger variety. Used to produce fruity, early maturing light red wines in cool-climate areas. Has no relationship with the Rotburger variety bearing nearly similar name.

ROTGIPFLER: Austrian white-wine grape blended with Spätrot grape wine to give a superior zesty, intensely fruity wine.

ROUPIERO: White-wine grape mainly grown in east-central Portugal and used in Portwine production.

ROUSSANNE: Also known as Bergeron in the french Savoie region. Semi-classic grape grown in the Hermitage-Rhone and southern Cotes du Rhone region of France. Still occasionally incorporated into white wine blends, (e.g: with the Marsanne grape wine), because of its acidity and aroma but finding less and less favor.

ROUSSETTE: Also known as Altesse. (See above).

ROY: Patented winegrape released around 1988 and mentioned in the "Argaman" variety publication by the ARO Horticultural Unit, Volcani Center at Bet-Dagan, Israel. (No other details as yet).

ROYALTY: Red wine grape cross derived from Alicante Ganzin and Trousseau varieties. Mainly confined to the Central Valley of California as declining acreages. Has similar characteristics to Rubired cross. (See below).

RUBIN BOLGARSKII: (a.k.a Rubin). Derived from a (fairly recent ?) Nebbiolo x Syrah variety cross. Grown extensively in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia where it is used to make a varietal red wine presumably having some aging ability.

RUBIRED: Teinturier derived red wine grape cross from Alicante Ganzin and Tinta Cao grape varieties. Mainly grown in California and Australia where it is used as a blended "stretch" wine. Regarded as superior to Royalty, (see above).

RUBY CABERNET: Red-wine grape cross originating from Carignan and Cabernet Sauvignon parentage. Bred for use in the hot San Joaquin Valley region of California by Dr. H.P. Olmo, a UC Davis researcher, this variety may lack the characteristic flavor of its parent yet have its aroma. Variable production depending on location. Color is stable and the grape shows above-average acidity. Susceptible to leafroll and fanleaf virus attack it shows better promise in cooler coastal regions. Also found on small acreages in South Africa, Chile, Argentina and Australia. Currently used in jug-wines as "backbone" ingredient.

RUCHÈ: Also known as the Rouchet or Roche. Minor grape grown in Piedmont region of Italy and used to make the aromatic "Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato" varietal wine.

RUFETE: (Pronounced "roo-FEH-teh"). Rare red-wine grape found in the border region of Spain and Portugal just south of Salamanca. Generally used as a light Portwine blending wine because of its easy oxidation, this grape reportedly can also produce a deeply colored, candied berry fruit-laden, fleshy varietal suitable for youthful drinking.

RULÄNDER: (See Pinot Gris above).

SAGRANTINO: Red-wine grape used to make "Montefalco" sweet local wines in Umbria, Italy. (No other details known as yet other than this variety is also under trial by certain growers located in Victoria, Australia).

SAMTROT: Mutated version of the Pinot Meunier grape. Grown in British Columbia, Canada and other N. American vineyards where it reportedly is used to create a varietal wine closer in style to classic Pinot Noir than does the Pinot Meunier. Limited acreages also (1997) found in Germany.

SANGIOVESE: (Pronounced "sahn-joe-veh-zeh"). Semi-classic grape grown in the Tuscany region of Italy. Used to produce the Chianti and other Tuscan red wines. Has many clonal versions, two of which seem to predominate. The Sangiovese Grosso clone Brunello variety is used for the dark red, traditionally powerful and slow-maturing "Brunello di Montalcino" wine. The other is the Sangiovese Piccolo, also known under the historical synonym name Sangioveto, used for standard Chianti Classico DOC wines. Old vine derived wine is often used in the better versions, needing several years aging to reach peak. A third clone, Morellino, is used in a popular wine blend with the same name found in the southern part of the province. Recent efforts in California with clones of this variety are very promising, producing medium-bodied reds with rich cherry or plumlike flavors and aromas.

SANGIOVESE GROSSO: (See Sangiovese above). Also known as the Prugnolo Gentile grape. Blended with Canaiolo (Nero) grape wine, it is the basic format used for all contemporary Chianti wines.

SAPERAVI (CHARNI): Red wine, acidic, teinturier-type grape variety capable of high sugar content widely grown in the winemaking regions of eastern Europe. In cool climates is mostly used as a blending wine. Small acreages are found in the Finger Lakes region of New York state in the U.S.A where at least one winery creates a blend with Sereksia (Noire) wine and called "Black Russian". Also at least one winery in N.E Victoria, Australia, produces wine from this variety. Several of the most promising crossings with classic grape or cold-climate resistant rootstock varieties, eg. Saperavi Severnyi, have been made available by eastern European research institutes since 1947.

SAPERAVI SEVERNYI: Cold hardy hybrid variety developed in Russia from V. Amurensis and (possibly) Précose de Malingre. Limited acreages currently grown in Nova Scotia, Canada and also British Columbia, Canada, where it is known as the Siewiernji. Widely grown in the CIS (former Soviet Union).

SAUVIGNON GRIS: Thought to be a mutated member of the Sauvignon cépage family, the vine is low-yielding and the grape acidic yet capable of high sugar content. Currently undergoing something of a revival in the region east of Graves near Bordeaux, France. The white wine has a herbaceous taste similar to that of its grape cousin, the Sauvignon Blanc, and is noted by some as reminding them of "crushed blackberry leaves". The wine is mostly used for blending purposes with its cousin's wine in order to give a unique varietal aroma and taste.

SAUVIGNON VERT: Alternative name for the Tocai Friulano grape of northern Italy. Also known there, and in France and Argentina, as Sauvignonasse. In California the grape known as Sauvignon Vert is probably a Muscadelle variety clone.

SAVAGNIN (BLANC): Semi-classic grape used to create the celebrated "Vin jaune" of the Jura region of France. Also known by the synonym name Frankisch in Austria. Is one of the few wines in which maderization is desirable and acquired with long bottle-aging. Thought by some to be clonally related to the Traminer variety still grown in that area of Europe. Sometimes called Klevner in the Alsace region of France. Known as the Heida (Paën) in Switzerland.

SAVATIANO: White-wine grape widely grown in central Greece. Usually found as part of a blend with Rhoditis and Assyrtiko grape-wines to create one of the resin flavored wines called "Retsina" so associated with Greece.

SCHEUREBE: Has synonym name Alzey S. 88. In Austria it is known as Samling 88. Grape variety developed in 1916 at the Alzey Research Institute, Germany, from a cross between Silvaner and Riesling. Has good resistance to frost (to -5 deg. F. approx. -20 C.) and usually ripens in mid-late season (mid-September to October). Extensively planted in the Rheinhessen, Rheinfalz and Franconia regions of Germany. Currently, 1997, recommended for planting in S.W. Michigan and the N.W. USA. Tolerant to lime soils and has good resistance to Chlorosis. If fruit is unable to mature, the wine quality will be of poor quality with an aroma described as similar to "cat urine". Normally produces full-bodied, aromatic white wines with good acid content that can reach "Auslese" Prädikat standard in the better vintage years and has long life in the bottle; ie. a 55 year-old experimental version from 1945 was recently (2000 AD) discovered and recorked.

SCHIAVA GROSSA: Has many synonym names including Frankenthaler and Koelner Blau. Also known as Trollinger in south Germany. A variant found in the Trentino-Aldo region of Italy is known as Schiava Gentile and is locally used for making full-bodied fruity, mellow red wines best served chilled and considered good value in better vintage years.

SCHOENBURGER: (a.k.a Schöenburger or Schonburger). Has synonym names of Rosa Muskat and Geisenheim 15-114. Is claimed to be derived from a cross of Spätburgunder x ((Chasselas Rose RS x Muscat Hamburg). The variety was released in 1979. Cultivation of this variety is much simplified due to good behaviour at flowering and ready adaptability to soil conditions. Normally used to create a full, fruity white wine in cool climate regions such as England and Germany.

SCIACARELLO: Minor grape grown mainly in Corsica. Used in rustic red wine blends of local character along with Malvoisie and others.

SCHWARZRIESLING: Alias name for the Pinot Meunier grape of France where grown in Australia. Also known as Millers Burgundy. (See above).

SCORZA AMARA: Variety used for red wine production in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Has synonym name of Scorzamara. Reportedly a clonal relative of the Lambrusco grape.

SERCIAL: Corrupted english name of the portuguese Cerceal grape when grown on the island of Madeira. Mainly used in fortified wines. Other synonyms include Esgana Cão on the Portuguese mainland.

SEREKSIA (BLANC): Rare eastern European white-wine mutant variety thought to originate from the Danube river basin region. In the Finger Lakes region of New York State grapevine plantings on small acreages are used to produce a sweet - (9.2% residual sugar) - fruit flavored white wine blend, along with the variety Rkatsiteli, called "White Russian".

SEREKSIA (NOIRE): Has several synonym names including Sereksia Tcheurnaia and Babeaska Neagra. The traditional Sereksia (Noire) red-wine grape is apparently only widely grown in Moldova, an area once part of Moldavia (a province of Romania) bordering the Black Sea. Also can be found on limited acreages in the Finger Lakes region of New York State where this V.vinifera variety was originally successfully cultivated by Dr. Frank. Is used there to create an aromatic, fruity red wine blend (called "Black Russian") with Saperavi (Charni) grapewine and having excellent aging potential.

SERINE: Accession variety, occasionally grown under the name Petite Sirah in California, reported as derived from a Petite Sirah x 3309 Couderc cross (the latter is a V.Rupestris x V.Riparia complex cross variety commonly used as a rootstock). Recent DNA analysis (1999) by U.C. Davis researchers has shown that some accession stock bearing the subject name is in fact Pinot Noir.

SHIROKA MELNISKA LOSA: (a.k.a Melnik). Variety indigenous to Bulgaria. Used to create an intense red wine varietal capable of improvement with, some say long, aging. (No other details as yet).

SIEGERREBE: (Pronounced "see-geh-RAY-buh"). Has synonym name Alzey 7957. Very early ripening (late August) grape derived from cross developed (at the Alzey Institute, Germany) between Gewürztraminer and the Madeleine Angevine table grape. Cold-hardy to around -15 deg. F (approx -22 C). Limited amounts are grown in Germany and used as small percentage additions (ie. 2-4%) in some Riesling blends due to its very heavy perfume aroma and spicy taste. Ill-suited to very hot regions in that much of the desirable perfume is lost. Susceptible to Mildew/Rot diseases and stem necrosis in wet/humid regions. Chlorosis can be a problem if planted on unsuitable rootstocks in lime-rich soils. Has variable productivity of around 2-5 tonnes per acre, with a tendency to overcrop, on fertile soils which should not be too rich because that is thought to cause variable flower set with consequent reduced yields. Low acids have been reported at harvest in Washington State (USA) where it has had best success as a late-harvest wine product. Does well in the cool, short growing-season areas of the Pacific Northwest of N. America and Finger Lakes region of New York State. The early ripening fruit tend to attract the attention of birds, bees and wasps.

SIEGFRIEDREBE: Has synonym names of Siegfried and F.S 4-201-3. Is derived from an Oberlin 595 S.P x Riesling complex cross. Credited as a Husfeld release from the Geilweilerhof, Siebeldlingen, Germany. Noted as easily mistaken for the latter parent, the cultivar ripens earlier, is much hardier and is much more resistant to Downy Mildew disease. The fruit is reported by some as having modest results when made into a wine. Currently grown in Germany and British Columbia, Canada.

SIEWIERNYJ: (a.k.a Saperavi Severnyi in Nova Scotia, Canada). Hardy, low-cropping, early variety originating from Russia via Poland. Imported to Canada as experimental cultivar by Dr. C. Bishop in the mid-20th cent. Buds around late May and ripens mid-late August in the Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada. Very attractive to birds. Also grown in Nova Scotia, Canada, where acids often remain high. High trellising recommended for this vigorous, drooping growth, vine. Juice has good color and the wine is thought suitable for blending with other red wines such as Michurinetz.

SILCHER: V.vinifera variety developed and subsequently released in 1999 by the Weinsberg/Wü:rttemberg Wine Research Station, Baden (De). Has synonym name Weinsberg S 377. Derived from a Silvaner x Kerner cross and so is quite similar to the Juwel cultivar. Recommended as a good white wine producing variety. (No other details as yet).

SILVANER (GRUEN): (a.k.a Sylvaner). The Geilweilerhof database (above) lists over 60 synonym names for this variety, including Osterreicher and Sonoma Riesling. Widely grown in the Alsace region of France, Germany and Central Europe. Suited to temperate zones, the vine is high-yielding and the grape produces an "easy" white wine with lightly spicy, floral flavors and mild intensity. Once very popular in California, it seems to have fallen victim to changing fashion in recent years and been replaced by (Johannisberg) Riesling in current taste. Belief that it had been crossed with the latter grape to yield the Müller-Thurgau variety is now in doubt. It is still believed to be involved as one parent in the creation of another crossed version called Scheurebe as well as several other crossings of a similar nature - (e.g: Bacchus, Optima).

SIPON: (See Furmint above).

SIRIUS: (No details as yet other than it is the offspring of a Bacchus x Villard Blanc crossing).

SKUJINSH 675: European Baltic States cold climate variety currently undergoing trial by Geneva Research Station, NY. Has synonym name Moskovskiy Ustoichiviy. Derived from a complex (Perle von Csaba x Amurskiy) x Alpha cross. Successfully grown in Latvia, Belarus and regions near Moscow, Russia, without winter protection. Small amber colored berries are early ripening, with complex muscat/pineapple flavor. Good sugar levels and acidity reported from european sources. Vines have fair mildew and other disease resistance. (No other details as yet).

SOUZÃO: Red wine Port-grape variety widely grown in the Douro region of Portugal. Also found in California and Australia for use in fortified Port-type wine.

SPÄTROT: (a.k.a Zierfandler or Zirifahnler grapevines). White-wine producing variety widely grown in Austria and often blended with the Rotgipfler grape derived wine to make the popular "Gumpoldskirchen" village wines.

STAUFER: (No details as yet other than it is derived from a Bacchus x Villard Blanc crossing).

STAVROTO: Red-wine grape mainly grown in the central regions of Greece. Mostly used for blending with the Krassato and Xynomavro grape-wines.

ST. ÉMILION: Has no relationship to the Bordeaux region of France. Is the Cognac region, (and Australian), alias name for the Ugni Blanc variety. In France the grape is mainly fermented to produce wine used for distilling into the fortified wine known as "cognac brandy". Alone, it creates a thin, low-sugar wine in cool temperate regions and must be distilled in order to concentrate the alcohol content.

ST. GEORGE: (See Agiorgitiko above).

ST. LAURENT: Minor grape thought by some to be related to Pinot Noir. Grown in Austria and Canada the grape is robust and resists many diseases. Early budding, it ripens in mid-late September. Used to produce a rich-looking red wine with pronounced fruity, flowery aromas. It is one of the parents used to create the cold-resistant Rondo hybrid cultivar, (see above), developed in Germany.

ST-PIERRE DORÉ: Variety unique to the St-Pourcain VDQS (Upper Loire region) on the River Allier, north of the Cotes d'Auverne, France. Used to create white wines. (No other details as yet).

SULMER: V.vinifera cultivar with synonym name Weinsberg S 351. Derived from a Blaufrankisch x Schwarzelbling cross. This recent release from the Weinsberg/Württemberg Wine Research Station, Baden (De), is currently recommended for red wine creation. (No other details as yet).

SULTANINA: Known as Thompson Seedless in California (see below). A claimed mutated variety, known as Sonaka (Seedless), is widely grown in India for use as a tablegrape.

SUPUTINSKI: Cold hardy to -40 deg. F. (ca -42 C.), this variety is reportedly a female pollinate and where grown in Ontario or Nova Scotia (Canada) is planted in alternate rows with other cultivars. The acidic wines are currently only recommended for blends. (No other details as yet).

SYMPHONY: White-wine producing grape-cross derived from Muscat of Alexandria and Grenache Gris created by a Univ. Davis viticulturist. May be the variety grown in the Alsace region of France known as Symphonie. The grape is mainly found in the Central Valley of California and used for blending purposes in the creation of sweet and sparkling wines.

TAMAIOASA ROMANEASCA: Variety claimed to produce high quality aromatic white wines in Romania. Suitably aged sweet or semi-sweet wines are described as having complex flavors reminiscent of frankincense and honey. Attractive when young if the must has had extended cold skin contact before pressing and fermentation.

TAMARES: White-wine producer variety widely grown in the El Bierzo region of N.W Spain. Known as Tamarez or Crato Branco where grown in Portugal. Mostly used to make the young Vinho Verde wines of the regions. Also found as local, acidic, varietal wines capable of some aging. Has many synonym names in both countries and is the subject of considerable confusion as a result. The Doña Blanco variety found in the same region of Spain is thought by some to be a clone or, by others, to have a synonym name.

TAMINGA: White-wine producing variety bred in Australia specifically for hot climate regions. (No other details as yet).

TANNAT: Deeply colored and tannic minor grape grown in the Pyrenees region of France. One of four grapes whose wine is blended to make the full-bodied red wine known as "Madiran". The others are Bouchy, Courbu and Pinenc. Also widely grown in Uruguay, S. America, where it has the synonym name of Harriague and is used to produce a popular varietal wine.

TARRANGO: Hot region red-wine grape variety cross quite popular in, and confined to, Australia. Reportedly derived from Touriga and Sultanina grapes and possessed of low tannins and some acidity. Considered by some to be Australia's equivalent to California's Petite Sirah as an underestimated "quaffing" wine although in no way related.

TAZZELENGHE: Red wine producing variety found in N.E Italy. Has synonym name Tacelenghe. Used for making a tannic varietal with moderate aging ability and also used in blends that include some Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

TEINTURIER: Also known as Teinturier du Cher. Of ancient origin, it is genetically present in the majority of varieties grown in order to add deeper redness, due to its pink flesh, to blends. In the late 20th century the name has come to be used as a generic term in France for all pink-fleshed varieties. Best known offspring is Alicante Bouschet. Many Gamay cépage teinturiers are thought to be derived from Gamay de Bouze.

TEMPRANILLO: Fine winegrape used in best quality red wines of Spain. Also known under the alias name of Cencibel in La Mancha. Has several other mutated versions such as the Tinto Fino of the Zamora region, Tinta del Pais of the Ribero del Duero and Tinta de Toro in the Toro region. In Portugal the grape is known as the (Tinta) Roriz and Aragonez. Large acreages are grown in Argentina. Also found in the Central Valley of California where it is known as Valdepeñas and mainly used to make grapejuice much favored by home-winemakers sold under the "Valdepenas" name in N. America.

TEROLDEGO: (aka Teroldego Rotaliano). Red-wine grape grown in the Trentino region of Italy. Used to normally produce an agreeable, deep red, blackberry flavored varietal wine. In the right conditions it is capable of creating a great wine with a depth of color all winemakers would like to achieve and a perfumed aroma of extraordinary finesse which suggests both wild berries and a delicate incense. It then explodes in the mouth showing its velvety structure with nuanced oak if done well, followed by an unforgettable length. While usually drunk young, the wine can age well for up to ten years.

TERRANO (NOIR): Variety found in the Carso DOC region, Fruili, Italy. Has several synonym names including Refosco d'Istria and Teran. Is thought to be a mutant clone of Refosco. Used to make a flavorsome, dark red wine with berry-like taste requiring 3 to 6 years cellaring. Considered by many to be an excellent match with Slavic cuisine such as Goulasch.

TERRET BOURRET: Variety grown in the Languedoc coastal region of France. Has synonym names Terrain and Terret Gris. (No other details as yet).

TERRET NOIR: Minor grape grown in the southern Rhone region of France. Still allowed in local red wine blends in order to enhance acidity as far as is known but finding less favor as the decades advance. Also grown in Australia where it is known under the alias name of Claret and in the Ukraine it has the alias name Terre Cherny.

THOMPSON SEEDLESS: Grape grown in enormous quantities in the Central Valley of California, U.S.A. Used to produce a very neutral white wine for stretching blends consisting of select varietals in order to create the so-called "jug" wines made by the bulk producers. Most of the crop goes towards dried grapes, an apt product for the grape known to the rest of the world as the Sultanina.

TIBOUREN: Black-skinned ancient grape variety grown in Provence, southern France. Mainly used for producing full-bodied rosé wines with a distinctive regional bouquet. Has synonym name of Antibois. In Germany the variety is known as Geysserin. (No other details as yet).

TINTA AMARELA: Variety grown in Portugal and used mainly as a secondary ingredient in fortified Port wines as an aroma enhancer. Also grown in Australia where it is known under the alias name Portugal Malbec.

TINTA BARROCA: Red wine Portgrape variety grown in the Douro region of Portugal. In the Stellenbosch region of South Africa it is used as a blending wine, along with Souzão, to produce fortified Port-style wines. Also used alone for good varietal still wines.

TINTA MADEIRA: Australian alias name for home growths of the Tinta Negramole variety associated with the island of Madeira. (See below).

TINTA NEGRAMOLE: Variety grown on the island of Madeira and currently mainly used for secondary blends of Madeira fortified wines in amounts not to exceed 15% volume of the blend. Also widely grown in Australia under the alias name Tinta Madeira. (See above).

TINTA PINHEIRA: Variety used for red wine production in the Dão DOC, Beiras region of Portugal. Can be found in blends also containing Jaen, Alfrocheiro, Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz wines.

TINTA DE TORO: Red wine producing grape variety grown in the Zamora region of NNW Spain. Reportedly a mutation of Tempranillo with higher tannin content than the parent grape. Used to make a popular varietal wine of high alcohol (>13%) content.

TINTO CÃO: Variety grown in Portugal and elsewhere. Regarded as one of the premier red wine grapes suitable for use in the production of fine Port wines.

TINTO FINO: Clonal version of Tempranillo variety found in the Ribera del Duero DO east of Valladolid, Spain.

TOCAI FRIULANO: Widely grown in the Fruili region of Italy. Also to be found in Argentina. Thought to be identical with the Sauvignon Vert grape grown in Chile. Used to produce lightbodied white wines with flowery and nut-like flavors and should be drunk when young.

TOKAY D'ALSACE: Alternate name for Pinot Gris grape - see above.

TORRETTE: (No other details as yet other than this variety is grown in the Valle d'Aosta region of Italy and used to create a dry red wine.)

TORRONTÉS: Fragrant white-wine grape cépage widely grown in Argentina; and also in Chile where it is known as Moscatel de Austria. Thought to have been imported early in the 20th century by Basque winemakers from Spain where it is currently grown in Galicia on the border with northern Portugal. Mainly used in the production of South American fortified Brandy and as a dry table wine with good acid content somewhat reminiscent of a Traminer wine.

TOURBAT:
Variety of disputed origin currently mainly grown in Sardinia where it has the alias name Torbato. Also known elsewhere as Caninu. Regarded as capable of producing a fragrant, crisp, well-balanced white varietal wine.

TOURIGA NACIONAL:
Has synonym name of Mortagua. Classic red wine grape used for still and Port wine production. Extensively grown in the Douro and Dão regions of Portugal, and other hot climate regions of the world. Regarded as the premier grape for use in fortified Port wines. In Australia this grape is known under the alias name of Touriga and is known to be one parent to the Tarrango grape cross. Small acreages are also found in California, South Africa and South America.

TRAMINER:
Parent grape of the popular Gewürztraminer clone. Still grown in France and in California but almost everywhere has been replaced by its much more intense and aromatic offspring clone. This name is still used in Australia as an alias name for Gewürztraminer and itself is also known there under the alias name of Sauvignon Rose, (and should not be confused with an identical alias used in France for a member of the Sauvignon Blanc cépage).

TREBBIANO:
Alternate name for Ugni Blanc grape - see below. Has many mutations/sub-varieties such as Procanico where found in Tuscany and Umbria, Italy.

TREBBIANO d'ABRUZZO:
Alternate name in certain regions of Italy for the Bombino Bianco grape. (See above).

TREIXADURA:
White-wine grape widely grown in Spain. The grape is known as the Trajadura in Portugal. Mainly used as a component wine in "vinho verde" style low-alcohol, (7-9%), blends in addition to wines from such grapes as Arinto, Azal (Branco), Esgana (Cão), Loureiro, and Rabigate, all to be consumed as young as possible.

TRESALLIER:
(a.k.a Sacy de Lyon). White-wine grape unique to the Saint Pourcain region of France. Mainly used as 50% of an unusual blend that also includes Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and Aligoté wines.

TRINCADEIRA:
Red wine variety grown in the Alentejo region of Portugal and used to make a somewhat spicy varietal wine. Reportedly is a synonym name for the Castelão Francês variety.

TROLLINGER:
German name for the Schiava Grossa red wine grape originating in the Tyrol region of Italy. A cross resulting from this grape carries the name Rotberger and is used to produce similar light red wines.

TROUSSEAU (NOIR):
Has the synonym name Tressot where grown in the Chablis (Burgundy) region of France. Red-wine grape also sparsely grown in several regions of southern France. Recently investigated as one of the varieties found in vineyards and collectively known as Petite Sirah in California. Something of a mystery grape, it may also be the variety known as Bastardo in both Australia and Portugal. Also thought by some to be the rare variety known as Cabernet Pfeffer in California. Also, by some, known as Cabernet Gros in Australia. A mutation known as Trousseau Gris is also found in France.

TROUSSEAU GRIS:
(a.k.a Chauché Gris). Mutated version of the Trousseau red-wine grape. Mainly found in the Jura region of south-west France and used to produce white wine. Thought to be the grape known in California as Grey Riesling despite having no relationship to the Riesling cépage.

TSIMLYANSKII (CHERNYI):
Russian cultivar used to produce light, acidic varietal or sparkling wines considered as mediocre by some. (No other details as yet).

TSITSKA:
V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Mostly found in dry white wine blends along with Tsolikouri and Krakuna wines. It is also made into a dry varietal version. (No other details as yet).

TULLILAH:
White-wine variety bred in Australia for growth in hot region climates. (No other details as yet).

TURAN:
Has synonym name Agria. Hungarian red wine variety with deeply colored flesh, released in 1985, with complex parentage of Bikavar 8 (resulting from a Teinturier x Kadarka cross) and Gardonyi G, the offspring of a Malbec x Perle de Csaba cross. Widely grown in Hungary and other Eastern European countries where it is most commonly used as a color-enhancing blend wine with Blauburgunder or to increase color intensity in wine blends such as "Egri Bikavar". Also grown on small acreages in British Columbia, Canada, where it has achieved some success as a varietal wine with flavors claimed to have a resemblance to wines made with certain Pinot Noir clones. Having high vigor growth, training to a double separated vertical spur-pruned cordon is recommended in cool climate regions. Normally ripens in early September with good sugar content.

TVAKVERI:
Grown in Georgia (CIS), this V.vinifera variety is used in semi-dry blended red and rosé wines along with other varieties such as Saperavi and Asuretuli etc. (No other details as yet).

UGNI BLANC:
(a.k.a Trebbiano). Widely grown in Italy and Southern France. There it produces a fruity, acidic white wine, best drunk when young and chilled. In the Cognac region of France and in Australia it is known as the St. Émilion grape. Australian growers also know this variety under the alias names of White Hermitage and White Shiraz.

USAKHELOURI:
V.vinifera variety grown in Georgia (CIS). Has several synonym names including Okourechouli. Used to create a semi-sweet red varietal wine. (No other details as yet).

UVA RARA:
(a.k.a Bonarda Novarese). Minor grape found in the Piedmont region of Italy. Used in red wine blends for creating roundness in the normally hard and tannic wines made with the Nebbiolo grape locally known as Spanna in the "Gattinara" area of Vercelli province.

VACCARÈSE:
Minor grape grown in the southern Rhone region of France. Used to create color, body etc. in local red wines. Reportedly is responsible, in part, for the characteristic "pepper, tobacco, licorice" aroma detected in blended wines from this region.

VALDEPEÑAS:
Red wine grape grown in California and capable of producing excellent wine. (See Tempranillo above).

VALDIGUIÉ:
Warm region minor grape widely grown in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France and known also under the alias name of Gros Auxerrois. Used to create backbone in the high alcohol "vin de table" red wine blends that originate from the Midi. In California it has the alias name of Napa Gamay and can produce surprisingly good wine. (See above).

VELTLINER:
(See Grüner Veltliner above).

VERDEJO:
White-wine producing variety extensively planted in the Rueda region of Spain. Can make good wines capable of aging well.

VERDELHO:
Variety most associated with Madeira is also found fairly widely grown in Portugal and Australia. Mainly used to produce medium-sweet white wines.

VERDELLO:
White-wine producer variety grown in central Italy. Known to be an ingredient in the best Orvieto Classico wine blends of Umbria. Has synonym name of Breval. May be a clone of the Spanish Verdelho variety, imported around the 15th century.

VERDICCHIO:
(Pronounced "ver-DEE-kyo"). Has synonym name of Verdeca. White-wine producing variety grown in the Italian provinces of Apulia, for use in a local dry, fruity blend to accompany fish dishes, and Campania, for use in the popular Neapolitan blend "Lachryma Christi del Vesuvio" along with three others, the Coda di Volpe, Falanghina and Greco di Bianca grapewines.

VERDISO:
Rare native grape grown and used for making light white, sparkling wines and blends - (eg. with Prosecco grapewine) - in the Fruili-Venezia-Giulia region of Italy.

VERDUZZO:
Ancient indigenous grape variety found in the N.E. regions of Italy. Used to produce popular sweet, sparkling and also light, dry white wines with fragrant aroma for youthful drinking accompaniment to desserts (former style) or, with the latter style, fish-based dishes.

VERMENTINO:
Alias name for Malvasia. This named grape is grown in Liguria (Riviera) region of Italy, Northern Sardinia and Corsica where it is used to produce full-bodied, dry white wines that go well with sea-food. Also found in Spain, Greece, E. Europe and Australia. Best when young.

VERNACCIA:
Minor grape of ancient origin grown in Tuscany region of Italy. Traditionally produces dry, lean white wines that soften after two or more years bottle aging. Also used to create sweet golden white wines.

VERTZAMI:
(No information at present on this red-wine grape grown in Greece).

VESPOLINA:
Minor grape found in the Piedmont region of Italy. Also known as Ughetta. Used to produce a red wine blend with Nebbiolo grape wine.

VIEN:
(No other details as yet other than this variety is grown in the Nus district of the Valle d'Aosta region of Italy and used to create a dry red wine.)

VIJIRIEGO:
Native variety grown on the Canary Islands. (No other details as yet).

VILANA:
White-wine grape widely grown on the island of Crete and mainly used to create a dry wine.

VIOGNIER:
(Pronounced "VEE-oh-nee-aye"). Semi-classic grape variety grown in the northern Rhone region of France. Has full, spicy flavors somewhat reminiscent of the Muscat grape and violets. Recent research indicates a clonal relationship to the Chasselas grape variety. New plantings in California have created much anticipation among that States wine community. Viognier wine can vary from almost Riesling-like character to almost Chardonnay character, depending on production method, but is not noted for aging ability and is best drunk while young. Variety clones are currently undergoing trial by the Cornell Horticultural Research Unit (NY) for cool climate region suitability. Recently planted small commercial acreages in the eastern Finger Lakes region of New York state are now (1997) yielding enough grapes to allow one winery to make limited amounts of varietal wine.

VITOVSKA:
Grape used to make a dry white varietal wine in the Fruili-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Unique to the Carso DOC close to the border with Slovenia. Capable of lasting for around four years if from good vintage year.

VIURA:
(See Macabeo above).

VRADIANO:
(No other details as yet other than it is a red-wine variety grown in Greece).

VROEGE LOONSE:
(Translation: "Early (from) Loon (county)"). Red wine variety, claimed to be a Pinot Noir clone seedling selection, discovered and propagated by M. Bellefroid, Borgloon, Belgium in the late 1940's. Ripens earlier, with low acidity, than the parent variety. No other details as yet other than it is still (1999) reportedly cultivated by the aged discoverer.

WALSH RIESLING:
(No information on this cultivar as yet. May be misspelling of Welschriesling below).

WEISSBURGUNDER:
(See Pinot Blanc above).

WEISSER GUTEDEL:
(See Gutedel above).

WEISSER SILVANER:
(See Elbling above).

WELSCHRIESLING:
(See also Italian Riesling above). Austrian name for the grape of ancient, but unknown, origins. May have Eurasian antecedents. Has no relationship to the german Riesling grape, which is called the Riesling Renano in Italy. Used for producing acidic dry and sweet white wines in Austria that have the label name "Riesling" which usually refers to this varietal, not the true german Johannisberg Riesling that is known by the name Rheinriesling. Widely grown in many countries of Eastern Europe such as Hungary where it has the synonym name of Olasz Riesling.

WHITE MOSCHATO:
Greek mainland name for the Muscat Blanc white wine grape.

WILDBACHER:
Ancient grape mainly grown in, and thought to originate from, Austria. Used to produce popular rosé "Schilcher" still wines that are very acidic and drunk very young and also rosé sparkling wines that are mainly found in western Styria. The variety is also grown in small amounts in northeastern Italy and the nearby former Yugoslavian state of Slovenia.

WÜRZER:
White-wine producing variety. (No other details as yet other than it is reported to be a recently released V.vinifera cross with Gewürztraminer as one parent).

XYNISTERI:
Indigenous aromatic white-wine grape grown extensively on Cyprus. Used to produce the Commandaria dessert wine of ancient fame.

XYNOMAVRO:
Red-wine grape commonly grown in Macedonia, N.E. and Central Greece. Often used in a blend with Negoska grape-wine or with the Stavroto and Krassato wines.

ZENIT:
Variety developed in Hungary in the early 1950's. Widely planted in Central Europe. Has synonym name Badacsony 7. Derived from a Ezerjó x Bouvier V. vinifera crossing. Usually ripening around early to mid-September it is mainly used to create a pleasant, crisp, general purpose white-wine.

ZIERFANDLER:
Also known as the Spätrot or Zirifahnler varieties. (See above). Contrary to some reports there is no evidence that this grape has a clonal relationship to the Zinfandel grape of California.

ZILGA:
European Baltic States cold climate variety, developed in 1964, currently undergoing trial at the Geneva Research Station, NY. Has synonym name Dvietes 4-2-108. Reported to be a complex (V. amurensis x V. labrusca x V. vinifera) cross. Berries are small, with Bilberry flavor profile. Vigorous, productive and very early ripening in cool conditions. Claimed to have survived harsh cold conditions of -40 deg. F. (ca -42 C.)in Belarus. (No other details as yet).

ZLATA:
White-wine producer variety grown in northern Dalmatian province of Croatia derived from a Irsai Oliver x Kunleany cross. (No other details as yet).

ZWEIGELT:
Recent crossing of St. Laurent and Blaufränkisch grapes finding favor in Austria and Canada. Has capability for creating good red wines with some aging ability. Reportedly is among the most cold-hardy vinifera varieties. Synonym names include Zweigeltrebe and Rotburger, the latter having no relationship with the Rotberger variety with nearly similar spelling.

End of Lesser/Crossed European Vinifera Varieties Text


WINEGRAPE VARIETY/PEST IMAGE LINKS

Insects responsible for transmitting Pierce's Disease bacteria are a major pest affecting the southern U.S.A and points south. The following address has excellent enlargable images of the "Glassywinged Sharpshooter" Leafhopper and signs of its presence.

DANRCS.UCDAVIS.EDU

The following sites contain excellent images of many grape varieties grown in N. America, Austria, Germany, Spain and N. Italy.

1) WWW.GRAPEPICTURES.COM

2) WWW.NYAES.CORNELL.EDU

3) WWW.AUSTRIAN.WINE.CO.AT

Note: When page accessed, click on "Grape Varieties" on left menu. Then click on "White Wine" or "Red Wine" dropdown menu to activate.
4) WWW.LANDWIRTSCHAFT-MLR.BADEN-WUERTTEMBERG.DE

5) WWW.HELCOM.ES

6) WWW.CUCINA.ITALYNET.COM

Note: When page accessed, click on variety desired. When page appears, click on image to get full-size photo.
Note: All the above sites seem to have occasional shutdowns for continuing construction.

Also a considerable number of native Spanish wine grapes are listed at URL: VINO.EUNET.ES for the benefit of those interested.


1) Return to "Classic Vinifera Varieties and Synonyms"

2) Return to "Lesser/Crossed European Vinifera Varieties"


FRENCH-AMERICAN/AMERICAN HYBRID/NATIVE VARIETIES

Clickable INDEX for French-American/American Hybrid/Native Varieties

[A] Agawam - Alachua - Albania - Albany Surprise - Alden - Alexander - Alpha - Alwood - America - Aris - Arnold 8 - Athens - Atoka - Aurelia - Aurore

[B] Bacchus - Baco 2-16 - Baco Noir - Bailey - Bath - Beaufort - Beaumont - Beichun - Bell - Belo Otelo - Belvidere - Beta - Bianca - Big Berry - Big Bunch - Big Concord - Black July - Black Spanish - Blanc Du Bois - Blondin - Bloom - Bluebell - Blue French - Blue Lake - Brandis - Brant - Breidecker - Brighton - Bronx - Buenos Ayres - Buffalo - Bullitt - Burdin 7705 - Burgaw - Burgundy - Burr 1 - Burr's Early

[C] Cabernet Severny - Caco - California L 11-2 - California L 11-3 - Cameo - Campbell Early - Canada Muscat - Canadice - Canner - Captivator - Cardinal - Carlos - Carter - Carver - Cascade - Cassady - Castel - Catawba - Catawissa - Cayuga (White) - Chambourcin (Noir) - Champanel - Chancellor (Noir) - Chardonel - Charvat - Chelois - Cliche 8414 - Clinton - Colobel - Concord - Conquistador - Coronation - Cottage - Couderc Noir - Creveling - Cynthiana

[D] Dattier de Beyrouth - Dattier St. Vallier - Dakota - Daytona - DeChaunac - Delaware - Delicatessan - Devereaux - Diamond - Diana - Dixie - Dixieland - Dog Ridge - Doreen - Dracut Amber O.P - Dutchess

[E] Early Fry - Early Niabell - Edelweiss - Eden - Eger 2 - Einset (Seedless) - Ellen Scott - Elvicand - Elvira - Emerald (Seedless) - Emily - Eona - Esprit - Eumalen - Extra

[F] Festivee - FLA D6-148 - Flame (Seedless) - Flame Tokay - Florida Fry - Florental - Foch - Fort Worth #3 - Foster - Fragola - Fredonia - Frontenac - Fry

[G] Galibert 261-12 - Garonnet - Gar- Supreme - Geneva White 7 - Geilweilerhof 67-198-3 - Geilweilerhof GA-49-22 - Geilweilerhof GA-58-30 - Geilweilerhof SBL2-(9-58) - Georgia 3 - Georgia 5-7-5 - Georgia 9-62 - Georgia 19-43 - Georgia 29-49 - Georgia S.29-49 - Glenora - Golden Muscat

[H] Habitant (Blanc) - Harmony - Hartford - Headlight - Herbemont - Herbert - Hibernal - Higgins - Himrod - Hopkins - Horizon - Howard - Hubbard - Hungarian - Hunt - Husman - Hybernal

[I] Inkameep Riesling - Interlaken - Iona - Isabella - Island Belle - Ison - Ivan - Ives (Noir)

[J] Jacquez - Jaeger 70 - Jewel - Joffre - Jumbo

[K] Kay Gray - Ke Wah Din - Keuka - Kishwaukee - Kittredge - Kuhlmann 188-2 - Kuhlmann 191-1 - Kuhlmann 296-1 - Kuhlmann 319-1

[L] LaCrosse - Lady Patricia - Lady Washington - Lake Emerald - Lakemont - L'Acadie - L'Ambertille - Landal - Landot 244 - Landot Noir - Latham - Laura Beverly - Lebanese No.9 - Lenoir - Leon Millot - Liberty - Long John - Loretto - Louise Swenson - Lucida - Lucie Kuhlmann - Luola - Lutie - Lynden Blue

[M] Magnolia - Magoon - Mantey - Marechal Foch - (Marechal) Joffre - Marguerite - Marquis - Mars - Melody - Meridian 13 - Merrimac - MG 101-14 - Michurinez - Midsouth - Millot - Mills - Minn 78 - Miss(issippi) Blanc - Miss(issippi) Blue - Missouri Riesling - Monticello - Moore Early - Moore's Diamond - Morio Muscat - Münch - Muench - Muscadine - Muscat de St. Vallier Blanc - Muscat Santa Vallier

[N] Neosho - Neron - Nesbitt - New York Muscat - Niabell - Niagara - Noah - Noble - Norris - Norton

[O] Oberlin 595 S.P - Oberlin 716 - Okanagan Riesling - Ontario - Orlando (Seedless) - Orion - Othello

[P] Panse - Patricia - Perle von Csaba - Phoenix - Pierce - Pinard - Plantet - Post Oak - Post Oak 2 - Prachttraube - Prairie Star - President

[R] Ramsey - Ravat (Blanc) - Ravat 34 (Noir) - Ravat 51 (Vignoles) - Ravat 262 (Noir) - Rayon d'Or - Regale - Regent - Reliance - Rosette - Roucaneuf - Rougeon - Royal Isabella - Ruby

[S] Saltcreek - Salvador (Blanca) - Salvador (Noire) - Saperavi Severnyi - Schuyler - Scuppernong - Seibel 123 - Seibel 1000 - Seibel 5279 - Seibel 5455 - Seibel 5474 - Seibel 5898 - Seibel 6468 - Seibel 6905 - Seibel 7053 - Seibel 8216 - Seibel 11803 - Siebel 13053 - Seibel 14665 - Seksarda - Seneca - Serena - Seyval Blanc - Seyve Villard 12-129 - Seyve Villard 12-309 - Seyve Villard 12-375 - Seyve Villard 12-375 O.P - Seyve Villard 18-315 - Seyve Villard 20-365 - Seyve Villard 20-473 - Seyve Villard 23-512 - Sheridan - Sibera - Soraya - Southland - Sovereign Coronation - Sovereign Opal - St. Croix - St. Francis - St. Pepin - St. Vincent - Sterling - Steuben - Stover - Summerland 361 - Sunbelt - Super Hamburg - Supreme - Suputinski - Suwannee - Svelter - Swenson (Red) - Swenson (White)

[T] Tampa - Tarheel - Tatar Rizling - Taylor - Teleki 8B - Tetra - Thomas - Topsail - Totmur - Traminette - Triomphe d'Alsace - Triumph

[U] Uhudler

[V] Van Buren - Vandal 63 - Vandal 163 - Vandal-Cliche - Vanessa Red (Seedless) - Valiant - Varousset - Veeblanc - Venus - Ventura - Verdelet - Vergennes - Vidal Blanc - Villard Blanc - Villard Noir - Vincent - Virginia Seedling - Vivant

[W] Wallace - Walter - Waltham Cross - Watkins - Wayne - Welder - White Male - Witt - Worden

[Y] Yates - Yuga


Introductory Information on Hybrids.

The term "hybrids" indicates that, unlike many of the naturally evolved vines, and crosses, covered above, two or more vine growths of different species have been crossed genetically by human intervention to produce a quite unique species that combines the best possible characteristics of the parent vines and eliminates their weaknesses to the greatest feasible extent. The term "French-American" indicates that the two parent growths came from, on the one side, a european "Vitis Vinifera" and, most often, a "Vitis Labruscana" that evolved via random fertilization from a North American "Vitis Labrusca" vine growth native to the East coast. There are several other types of native vine common to N. America (eg. many T.V. Munson discoveries, "V. Borquiniana" etc) that do not share the species specific "foxy" taste characteristic of the labrusca. Instead they are each capable of producing individual flavors, several of which are essentially neutral, and in some cases can bear a close resemblance to european wines. Nearly all played some part in the creation of the interspecific cultivars now used worldwide in various roles.

Many of the "hybrids" listed were created as a response to the seasonal temperature extremes commonly encountered in the northernmost temperate zones of Europe and N. America; and as counter to various disease's that can affect most of the vine transplant growths after importation to N. America from Europe. Each of the hundreds of hybrid crossings created yearly is allocated a number, e.g. "Seibel 5279", until they become commercially acceptable after extensive field trials, as the mentioned example did, eventually being named "Aurore". Only named varieties appear below, most of them capable of proven consumer acceptance when converted to varietal wine or wine blends although, in the face of the success of traditional vinifera wines with consumers, their market future has become, (1997), uncertain. Note that they currently cannot be labeled lawfully in many countries as "Quality Wines", a phrase reserved for use with Vinifera-derived wines only, and so are designated solely as "Table Wines" in those countries.

Growers in cool/cold climates should be aware that most vines vary in their sensitivity to low temperatures. Grafted vinifera planted in locations where minimum temperatures occasionally fall below 0 deg. Fahrenheit (-17 Centigrade) can be expected to suffer some cold injury. Protecting the graft union by "hilling-up" with earth, snow or mulch during the winter months assures the likelihood of trunk renewal and vine survival. In locations where minimum temperatures frequently fall below -10 deg. F. (ca -23 C.), trunk and cane protection is absolutely vital.

A 16 page Information Bulletin #233, pub. 12/93, US$4.75, entitled:

"Wine and Juice Grape Varieties for Cool Climates"
by Bruce I. Reisch et al. is obtainable from the Postal address:

Media Services Resource Center,
Cornell University,
7 Business and Technology Park, NY 14850.
Tel. No. (607) 255-2080


VARIETY NAME

AGAWAM:
This variety is a V. Labrusca/Vinifera hybrid, created by E. Rogers, dating from the 1850's. It was derived from a Carter x Black Hamburg cross. Can be used to make a refined light red or rosé wine having a "foxy" flavor. (No other details as yet).

ALACHUA:
Complex V.rotundifolia (i.e. Muscadine) cultivar created at Leesburg, Florida. Derived from a Fry (Early) x Southland cross by J. Mortenson and J. Harris. Is a black-skinned berry variety recommended as suitable for planting in the Gulf States of USA. (No other details as yet).

ALBANIA:
Vigorous, productive V. Aestivalis hybrid female pollinate variety created by T.V. Munson reported to be a Norton x Herbemont cross variety. Has a very late season (reported as early October in Missouri) maturity, even later than Villard Blanc, and requires a hot climate to fully ripen. Recommended by some as suitable for planting in Kansas and other south-central States. Does not flourish in lime-contaminated soils. Growers report mixing rows of this variety with any self-pollinating variety gives good pollination results. White wine claimed to have somewhat spicy aromatic and taste flavor resemblance to Gewürztraminer.

ALDEN:
Labruscana variety, derived from a Ontario x Gros Guillaume cross, recommended for cool climate regions. Suitable for Table or Wine use. Among the largest of the American cultivar grapes it is firm and meaty with a light Muscat flavor and is none-slipskin. Ripens early to mid-season, about two weeks before Concord.

ALEXANDER:
Old-line V.labrusca x V.vinifera variety of unknown origin propagated before 1830 (when it was listed in the book "Treatise on the Vine" by R.W. Prince the Long Island, NY nursery owner). Has at least 20 synonym names according to the Geilweilerhof database - above in the Foreword. Recommended as a winegrape for warmer climates than New York state, it reportedly has a leaf profile reminiscent of the Syrah variety but also displays strong V.labrusca flavors when made into wine. Reported (Aug/2000) as one of the historically authentic vines currently planted in the Thomas Jefferson Monticello vineyard, Monticello, VA.

ALPHA:
Winegrape cultivar developed by U. Minnesota. Recommended for planting in Saskatchewan, Canada. Similar heritage as Beta variety (below). (No other details as yet).

ALWOOD:
Recommended as suitable for cool climate regions. Is an early ripening American labruscana variety, derived from an Athens x Fredonia cross, having tight clusters of large berries. Often needs cluster-thinning because of tendency to overcrop. Recommended for juice, jelly or fruity wine production in New York state and other favorable cool climate regions.

AMERICA:
(No other details than this cultivar is the result of a Jaeger 43 x Unknown I.D. hybrid cross).

ARIS:
Green skinned variety derived from an Oberlin 716 x Riesling 91 cross developed at the Geilweilerhof Institute, Germany. Has synonym name Geilweilerhof SBL2-(9-58). Regarded as a high quality vine giving a low yield. Ripens late in the season, producing large quantity of small bunches with small berries. (No other details as yet).

ATHENS:
American labruscana variety, derived from a Hubbard and Portland labruscana cross, that is one of the parents of the recent (1996) Marquis hybrid cultivar. (No other details available as yet).

ATOKA:
(No other details other than this cultivar is the result of a complex American hybrid cross of the varieties America x Delaware and is recommended for planting in the State of Arkansas as disease resistant).

AURELIA:
(No other details other than it is a tablegrape recommended as disease resistant in the State of Arkansas. Has the synonym name of Dunstan 56 and is derived from a Villard Blanc x Chaouch Blanc cross).

AURORE:
(a.k.a Siebel 5279). Hardy, early sweet French-american hybrid grape widely grown in New York State (U.S.A), but no longer recommended. Fruit ripens very early in late August to early September but is highly susceptible to bunch rots. Used to produce fruity, short-lived white wines of mild intensity considered to be poor quality and usually vinified for bulk production and blending. Also used for sparkling wines and as a table grape resistant to most Mildew diseases. Mainly found in the colder northern temperate regions of North America and is attractive to birds.

BACO NOIR:
(Pronounced "bak-ko noo-w-arh"). Has synonym name Baco No.1. A sometimes overly vigorous French-American hybrid grape released in 1902 suited to heavy soils and used to make a high acid, deeply pigmented red wine regarded by some as a good, if rustic, substitute for Cabernet Sauvignon, particularly if given a suitable finish (eg. oak). Dating from around 1955 many Canadian growers have obtained superior flavor results by planting the "George" clone of this variety. Capable of aging, and sometimes requiring it, its origins trace to the Folle Blanche and a native American V. Riperia strain of grape. Buds early with consequent danger of frost damage. Ripens in late September with susceptibility to bunch rot problems and is attractive to birds. Extensively grown in the cool northern regions of N. America.

BAILEY:
Complex American/European cross variety created by T. V. Munson. Noted for disease resistance and good productivity. Can be used to make neutral flavored wine. Recommended by some as suitable for planting in Kansas and other south-central U.S. States. (No other details as yet).

BATH:
Derived from labruscana Fredonia and N.Y. 10805 varieties by NY's Geneva Research Station in 1962. Once widely planted in British Columbia, Canada. Ripens in late September; at last report now almost entirely uprooted and replaced by other varieties except where grown for tablegrape and juice production.

BEAUFORT:
American hybrid cultivar developed by Byron Johnson of Cincinnati, Ohio. Derived from a cross between Fort Worth #3 and an unknown V. Rupestris variety. Used to create a deeply red-colored wine with flavor described as reminiscent of blackcurrants. The vine is vigorous and productive in cool-climate regions.

BEAUMONT:
American hybrid cultivar suitable for Wine, Juice or Table use. Variety reportedly developed by the late Byron Johnson of Ohio from a cross between the T. V. Munson hybrid Headlight and an unknown Labruscana variety. Ripens early to mid-season and is used to produce a neutral white wine. Vine is vigorous and productive. Not to be confused with a V. Riparia variety known by the subject name, developed before 1900, of which no details are available as yet.

BEICHUN:
Is a complex American, Asian and Muscat Hamburg hybrid cultivar grown in China and elsewhere. Developed at the Northern Chinese Viticultural Institute, near Beijing, it is harsh-cold resistant and bears heavy crops mainly used to produce table and wine grapes having a distinctive yet non-"foxy" flavor.

BELL:
Complex American cultivar created by T. V. Munson. Is a cross of Elvira x Delaware. Attractive variety suitable for growing in the south-central States of the U.S.A. (No other details as yet).

BETA:
Extremely winter-hardy american labruscana derived from a Concord x Carver variety crossing. Ripens late September in New York state. Also recommended as suitable for growing in Saskatchewan, Canada. Similar to Alpha above. (No other details as yet).

BIANCA:
New cold climate and disease resistant cross-variety (Hungary patent pending?) available in W. New York, USA and Ontario, Canada; also in Hungary and Austria. Has synonym names Bianka and Egri Csillagok. Clusters are loose, medium in size and mature in early mid-season. Reportedly cold-hardy and tolerant to downy/powdery mildews. Grafting to a phylloxera resistant rootstock is recommended. Is a V.vinifera Bouvier x Eger 2 cross variety developed in Hungary and suitable for white wine production. Claimed to have Chardonnay-Sauvignon Blanc wine character.

BIG BERRY:
Reported to be a V.lincecumii variety. Has synonym name Big Bunch. (No other details as yet).

BLACK SPANISH:
(a.k.a Blue French, Burgundy, Jacquez and Lenoir). The cultivar is an oldline 19th century bunchgrape, derived from a cross between an unknown Vinifera and native American Bourquiniana species, recommended for use in the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. However reports indicate a low sugar and acid balance in mature fruit and it is no longer high on the recommendation list for those areas. Thought by some to have a clonal relationship to Herbemont. Has good resistance to Pierce's Disease, producing large clusters of small red fleshed berries. Does not propagate well from hardwood cuttings and grafting to a suitable rootstock, such as Dog Ridge or Tampa, is recommended if to be cultivated in deep sandy soils. Although used to produce a white blending wine it is not recommended for use as a varietal red wine because of limited color stability and a taste some find unacceptable.

BLANC DU BOIS:
White-wine producer cultivar with Muscat-like flavor released (1987) for use in Florida where it has had medal winning success for vaguely Riesling-like varietal still wine and sparkling wine blends. Developed by John Mortenson of the Leesburg Research Station, University of Florida, it is the result of a cross between FLA D6-148, a Florida-developed hybrid (thought by some to be a V. aestivalis complex derivative) and the Cardinal table grape. Self-fertile, vigorous and productive, ripens early July in Florida. It is resistant to Pierce's Disease but seems especially vulnerable to Anthracnose and Black Rot.

BLONDIN:
Variety reported to be a complex hybrid with Post Oak, Norton, Herbemont and Ten-Dollar-Prize parentage. (No other details as yet other than it is reported to be a T.V. Munson developed hybrid).

BLUEBELL:
Derived from a Beta cross with an unknown variety. Is high quality blue seeded variety developed by Univ. Minnesota. Has good disease resistance and is cold-hardy to -40 deg. F. (ca -42 C.). Recommended as a tablegrape and for juice production in colder Mid-western states of USA. (No other details as yet).

BLUE LAKE:
Developed by the University of Florida, this grape has good resistance to Pierce's Disease and better resistance to other fungi diseases than most other Southern State red fleshed bunchgrapes. Grafting is not needed except in soils with pH greater than 7.0. Very productive and ripens evenly. Its berries are very attractive to birds. Juice is used to produce white wine suitable for blending for the same reason as Black Spanish above.

BRANDIS:
Reported to be a complex V.riperia x V.labrusca x V.aestivalis female pollinate vine resistant to fungus diseases. Appears to have been developed in Connecticut, USA in 1985. No other details other than it is used for cross-pollination purposes and making wine.

BRANT:
Thought to have been developed in Ontario, Canada, this cultivar is a cross between the Clinton and Black St. Peter varieties. It has the synonym name of Arnold 8. Its main current use appears to be that of a tablegrape grown by Parisian home gardeners in France in order to make occasional small batches of varietal red wine. Has medium productivity/vigor, and is susceptible to Powdery Mildew, other fungus diseases and winter frost damage.

BRONX:
(No other details yet other than it is reportedly an American Labruscana variety).

BUFFALO:
Vigorous, productive, early ripening (around 2 weeks before Concord) variety derived from Herbert and Watkins varieties by NY's Geneva Research Station in 1938. Resembles its "Herbert" parent. Once found extensively planted in the Okanagan region of British Columbia, Canada and elsewhere. Moderately winter hardy, with good growth vigor, it ripens in late September and can produce very sweet, blue slipskin fruit. Produces best when trained to 4-cane Kniffen system. At last report this Concord-type grape has been almost entirely uprooted and replaced by other varieties except where used for tablegrape and juice production.

BURGAW:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. Derived from a Thomas x (Scuppernong F.P x Florida (New Smyrna) M.P). (No other details as yet).

CACO:
Winter hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) seeded, sweet red-fruited variety derived from a Concord x Catawba american labruscana variety cross first released around 1947. Heavy producer in most climates, ripening in September. Recommended as good tablegrape for growers in State of Arkansas. (No other details as yet).

CAMPBELL EARLY:
One of the early 19th century American labrusca hybrids; created in Ohio from two complex Concord seedling derivatives named Moore Early and the offspring of a (Belvidere x Muscat Hamburg) cross. Known also by the alias name Island Belle in Washington states Puget Sound region. Ripening around early October, is used as table grape and also to make wine in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, (Canada). At last report a few acreages remain in N. America, mainly for juice production.

CANADA MUSCAT:
Created by the Geneva Research Institute of New York in 1961, this cultivar is a cross between Muscat Hamburg and Hubbard. (No further information available at present).

CANADICE:
Very hardy sweet red-skinned seedless grape released in 1977 by the N.Y. (Geneva) Research Station. Cold hardy, ripens in late September, and quite similar to the Delaware variety. Recommended mainly for tablegrape or juice production. Has slightly "foxy" flavor.

CAPTIVATOR:
Hybrid red bunchgrape developed and released in 1902 by the dedicated T.V. Munson as suitable for certain areas in State of Texas. Has poor resistance to Pierce's Disease although derived from similar types of parent grape as Conquistador below. Regarded by many as the most delicious of the sweet tablegrapes grown in humid summer regions of the southern U.S.A. and elsewhere where it ripens about the same time as Himrod.

CARDINAL:
Table/winegrape variety derived from a cross between the Flame Tokay and Ribier (Noir) varieties. (No other details as yet).

CARLOS:
Made as a varietal by several U.S. wineries, mainly in Arkansas, N. Carolina and Mississippi, this bronze colored complex V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) hybrid cultivar is derived from a Howard x (Topsail x Tarheel) crossing. Has the synonym name North Carolina 57-56. Is a well-recommended, cold hardy, cultivar grown in the Southern States of the U.S.A and generally made into sweet white wines and juice. Not quite as resistant to Pierce's Disease as most other Muscadines. Has vigorous growth and ripening can be controlled with a 90% dry (girdling) scar. Most Muscadines ripen over an extended period of three weeks or more and because Muscadines are harvested without their stems, a dry scar is usually needed in order to retain the juice in all of the fruit until harvest crush or marketing. Suitable for machine harvesting. The best known related variety is the Scuppernong.

CARTER:
Has several synonym names, including Mammoth Globe, and was obtained from an Isabella hybrid variety selected seedling. It is one of the parents, the other being Black Hamburg, of several hybrid cultivars that include Agawam and Herbert.

CARVER:
(No details as yet other than it is one of the parents of the Beta american labruscana variety).

CASCADE:
Has synonym name Siebel 13053. Early, moderately hardy blue French-American hybrid grape unfortunately attractive to birds. Used to produce a light red wine with low body acidity. Because of vulnerability to soil borne virus diseases it is low on the recommendation list for wine grapes.

CASTEL:
French-American hybrid suitable for Wine or Juice use. Ripens early to mid-season. (No other details available as yet).

CATAWBA:
This historically important variety is reportedly a N. Carolina chance seedling, selected in 1802, that originated in the Piedmont region of that State and was named after the nearby Catawba river. A native American - (ie. a V.labrusca x V.vinifera hybrid) - red slipskin grape, it is commonly used to produce sweet white, red and rose' wines distinguished by a so-called "foxy" aroma component in cases where modern winemaking techniques fail to remove/mitigate the agent responsible. May fail to ripen properly unless grown in areas with a long growing season. Has some susceptibility to fungus diseases. Suitable also as a Table grape. Commonly grown in the Eastern U.S. and Canada on favorable sites. New York state wineries produce large amounts of sparkling wine from this grape. Its high acid profile can be modified by blending with other suitable labruscana derived red wines such as Rougeon. Also quite popular when made into an ultra-sweet "ice-wine".

CAYUGA (WHITE):
A recommended hybrid cross, developed 1947 and released in 1972 by the Geneva (NY) Research Station, between the Schuyler and Seyval Blanc cultivars. Usually ripens around late September and is used to make a fruity white wine of mild intensity somewhat similar to Riesling. Widely grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York State and other hard-frost to -5 deg. F. (ca -20 C.) susceptible regions of North America. Also recommended for Arkansas. Noted for hardiness and bunch rot disease resistance, the grapes should be picked at low sugars to avoid over-ripe, sometimes labrusca-like, flavors. Young shoots reportedly fragile in strong winds.

CHAMBOURCIN (NOIR):
Bunch rot resistant, mildly winter-hardy to -5 deg. F.(ca -20 C.) french-american hybrid with French Rhone origins. Requires a long growing season, often ripening in mid-October. Reportedly vulnerable to Crown-gall disease in Missouri. Used to make very good quality red wines reportedly with spicy aromas, fruity flavors and some herbaceousness if fruit clusters are appropriately thinned. Somewhat low in tannins so can benefit from extended skin contact during fermentation. Grown in the cooler regions of Eastern U.S., Canada and Europe. Decreasing acreages also found in Australia. Note that due to stringent European Union rules hybrid varieties can no longer be blended with traditional varieties in western Europe although it remains a popular variety and is still widely grown in the Bordeaux region of France.

CHAMPANEL:
Large, vigorous American hybrid grape with high heat and drought resistance. Commonly grown in Texas and other Gulf States it is one of the few hybrids developed by T.V. Munson that is resistant to Pierce's disease, the main limiting factor to grape growing in the Gulf South. Recent observations have found that it can, however, act as a host to the bacterium. It is a cross between V. Champinii and a Concord seedling. Since Champanel also has excellent resistance to nematodes, has tolerance of extremely alkaline soil and in spite of the fact that it has only limited resistance to Phylloxera, it has been used as a rootstock in Texas. Rootstocks are not usually expected to produce fruit of value, so most grape growers have rejected Champanel for making wine. The grape, however, produces a quite acceptable red wine judged generally superior to such red varieties as Miss(issippi) Blue and Midsouth. The vine's extreme vigor means it does well where other vines may not survive and does not need to be grafted.

CHANCELLOR (NOIR):
A french-american hybrid with origins in the Rhone Valley of France. Hardy, ripens in early to mid-October but has extreme susceptibility to fungal diseases, particularly downy and powdery mildew, in Michigan, Ohio and currently, 1997, is not widely recommended. Was also grown and very popular in France where it was used to produce high quality red and rose' wines. Now being replaced by varieties stipulated by E.U. rules.Also grown in the cooler regions of Eastern U.S. and Canada.

CHARDONEL:
Recommended frost-hardy French-American hybrid cross released in 1990 and descended from the Seyval Blanc and Chardonnay varieties. Planting has been limited in the face of success with Chardonnay in the eastern and mid-west regions of the U.S. Noted for superior cold-resistant properties since its release from W. New York's Geneva Research Station. Requires good locations (low tolerance of poorly drained soils) with long growing season. Ripens later than its vinifera parent, usually early to mid-October. Used to make quite popular white tablewine in Arkansas, Michigan and Missouri. Recently found to be susceptible to crown gall in wet spots and, in Virginia, to damage by grape root borers.

CHELOIS:
French-american hybrid grape, with Jaeger 70, Aramon, Piquepoul (Blanc), Emily and several others in its genealogy, used to produce very good, robust, fruity red wines claimed to hint of Burgundy and often finished in a dry style. Prone to attack by fungal diseases and vulnerable to bunch rot near harvest in some years. Usually requires cluster thinning and ripens in early to mid-October. Recommended mainly for cooler regions of the N. American continent.

CLINTON:
Oldline American native labrusca variety used to make simplistic, inky red varietal wines with strawberry-like aroma and "foxy" flavor. Still found in vineyards of N.E USA and Italy.

COLOBEL:
Ripening in mid-October this productive, slightly cold hardy, French-American hybrid red-fleshed wine grape is often used in small quantities as a teinturier-style grapewine for its deep coloring effect in blends. Also known as Siebel 8357. Creates a low quality, very dark red wine as a varietal. The Vincent grape - (see below) - is very similar, (although not as deep in color), somewhat hardier and makes a better wine.

CONCORD:
Historically important - (introduced to the Northeast USA around 1850) - very hardy native American V.labrusca cultivar producing the characteristic "foxy" flavored style of red wine associated with vitis labrusca vines. Ripens mid-late October. Like its popular offspring Niagara, (created by a Concord x Cassady crossing in 1868), it produces small vines and low crops unless grafted onto a good growth rootstock (eg. "3309") and planted in soils of optimum fertility. Mainly grown in the Eastern and Mid-Western U.S. and Canada to produce sweet finished wines, grape-juice and desirable fruit-flavored dessert grapes. Has susceptibility to skin cracking and postharvest shelling; also to Eutypa-dieback disease. A very similar grape called Fredonia is grown in the Erie region of New York state, ripening about two weeks earlier, and acts as an insurance crop against early frosts. Another version, named Sunbelt, has been developed to give more even fruit ripening in the hot conditions of the Southern and Gulf States of the U.S.A.

CONQUISTADOR:
Is possibly the most successful of the hybrid red bunchgrapes developed for Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. in order to have resistance to Pierce's Disease etc. Is a cross between two cultivars, each of which has one Concord parent. It is less vigorous than other red cultivars such as Champanel, Blue Lake or Midsouth. Regarded as far superior to Concord for use in the southern Gulf States despite uneven ripening characteristics that force multiple pickings. Vines are not suitable for machine harvesting. Requires grafting to rootstocks such as Dog Ridge or Tampa for good growth and yields in sandy or highly (7.0 pH) alkaline soils. Recommended as a seeded tablegrape that has the usual slightly "foxy" taste. When used for wine production it suffers color instability and is only recommended for "Blanc de Noir" style wine.

COTTAGE:
(No other details other than this V. Labrusca cultivar is the result of a Concord x Unknown I.D. hybrid cross, or possibly a Concord variety clone. Recommended as disease resistant for the State of Arkansas).

COUDERC NOIR:
French-American hybrid, still widely grown in France, derived from the V. lincecumii and rupestris seedling Jaeger 70 and an unknown Vinifera variety. Normally produces a dark red, berry flavored varietal juice. Currently used to produce rosé wines suitable for blending purposes that have some aging ability.

CREVELING:
V.labrusca variety that has synonym names that include Bloom, Catawissa and Laura Beverly. (No other details as yet other than it is a tablegrape variety some believe to be a 19th cent. hybrid developed in Canada).

CYNTHIANA:
Local lore suggests this oldline red wine producing grapevine was a "chance find" wild growth in the State of Arkansas. Ampelographic characteristics are so similar that most experts considered it identical, or closely clonally related, to the Norton grapevine claimed to have originated from the State of Virginia - (see below). DNA analysis carried out in the Geneva Research Station, New York, has shown the two cultivars to be identical members of the V.aestivalis vine group. There is controversy about which cultivar has best resistance to Pierce's Disease. Successful and prized in Arkansas and Missouri where it reportedly ripens in late September and keeps well. It has proven somewhat less adaptable in more southerly States, low productivity small berry clusters having been reported along the Gulf Coast. At the height of the mid-19th century phylloxera crisis in France this variety was the vine of choice for vineyard restoration. However its poor calcium tolerance defeated all efforts at replanting, due to the high lime content of most French soils, and it has never regained that popularity. Grafting is not required. Requires soils with good drainage if disease is to be avoided. Wine color is stable, a characteristic that helped promote its 1873 acclamation in Europe as "best red wine of all nations".

DECHAUNAC:
Productive, hardy to -15 deg. F (ca -26 C.), mid-October ripening french-american hybrid grape that is not currently recommended because of susceptibility to soilborne viruses and poor, (1997), market demand conditions for some hybrid grapes. It gives a fruity, balanced red wine of only fair quality usually possessed of low to mild tannic content. Having low popularity as a varietal it is commonly used as a tannin diluting blending component in tannin-rich bulk wines. Planted mainly in the cooler regions of the Northeast U.S. and Canada where it once had the name Cameo, changed in 1972 because of certain proprietary and other objections.

DATTIER ST. VALLIER:
Has synonym names Muscat de St. Vallier Blanc, Muscat Santa Valliere. Technical name is Seyve Villard 20-473. Derived from a Pense x Seyve Villard 12-129 cross. French/American hybrid grape suitable for wine or tablegrape use. Ripens mid-late October in most areas. According to the list where the information appeared this grape has the alias name of Waltham Cross where grown in "New World" regions. A little known selection (originating before 1900 from Vaucluse, France) named Dattier de Beyrouth is reportedly still grown under glass in Calgary, Alberta (Canada).

DAKOTA:
Winegrape cultivar recommended as suitable for growing in Saskatchewan, Canada. (No other details as yet).

DAYTONA:
Is a Southern bunch grape bred in Florida. In areas with hot nights it ripens with a pink blush. If cold nights, the berries are red. The cultivar is resistant to Pierce's disease, but in many areas it seems to be a shy bearer. Grafting not required. Recommended for dooryard planting as a tablegrape.

DELAWARE:
A native American hybrid grape variety used to make dry, sweet and sparkling white wines of good quality and barely perceptible "foxy" character. Commonly grown in the Eastern U.S. on deep, fertile, well-drained soils where it ripens in early to mid-October, it has considerable popularity when made into "ice-wine". Has some susceptibility to fruit and foliage fungus diseases and requires grafting to a phylloxera-resistant rootstock for best growth. For Arkansas the main recommendation is to cold-press grapes that were grown on grafted rootstocks and finish as a 1.5 - 2.0% residual sugar, or as a true dessert, wine. Also described as an excellent (seedbearing) Tablegrape. A selected seedling of this variety named Jewel with synonym names Burr 1 and Burr's Early, was very popular in the first years of the 20th century, ripening a little earlier than its better known sibling. NB: this seedling should not to be confused with the recent (1999) Juwel V.vinifera cultivar release with a similar synonym name.

DELICATESSAN:
This variety is a productive, disease resistant, complex (7-species) T.V Munson bred hybrid cultivar suitable for planting in Kansas and Oklahoma, USA, or anywhere that the Concord variety can be successfully planted. It is used to produce what some consider to be an overly vinous, fruity product, with no detectable "foxy" flavor, that invariably needs softening with neutral blending wine.

DEVEREAUX:
V. bourquiniana variety, suitable as wine/tablegrape, grown in U.S.A and Brazil. According to the Geilweilerhof database (above) has several synonym names including Black July and Buenos Ayres. (No other details as yet).

DIAMOND:
Also known as Moore's Diamond. American native vine and vinifera hybrid grape created (1885) in Brighton, N.Y. by Jacob Moore by crossing the Iona vinifera-labrusca hybrid with Concord. Ripening in early to mid-October, it resembles the latter parent and has been widely grown in western New York state and used for creating sparkling blends and dry varietal wines. Susceptible to fruit-cracking under wet conditions. It is also popular as a tablegrape.

DIANA:
Is an old-line nineteenth century American labruscana variety named after Diana Crehore, the originator, first exhibited in 1843. Once commonly grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York, it was one of the primary parents, along with Muscat Hamburg, whose offspring was then crossed with the Concord, itself a labrusca-vinifera hybrid, to create the historically interesting secondary hybrid Brighton, one of the later importantly successful american hybrids derived from a vinifera and labrusca variety.

DIXIE:
V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) complex variety derived from a Topsail x (Lucida x Wallace) cross. Has synonym name N.C. 88-102. Useful as a wine or tablegrape, this self-fertile variety is recommended as suitable for growing in the Gulf or southeastern States of the U.S.A.

DIXIELAND:
V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) variety derived from a Fry x Georgia S.29-49 cross. Has the synonym name Georgia 5-7-5. This self-fertile variety is recommended for use as a tablegrape where grown in the Gulf or Deep South states of the U.S.A.

DOG RIDGE:
Propagated to resist Pierce's Disease for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. Recent evaluation notes that it can, however, act as a host to the bacterium. Recommended by U. Florida for use as rootstock for Black Spanish, Conquistador, Orlando (Seedless) and Stover varieties in those areas particularly if soil pH exceeds 7.0.

DOREEN:
V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) variety derived from a Higgins x Dixie cross. (No other information yet on this grape listed as suitable for the Gulf and Southeastern States of the U.S.A).

DUTCHESS:
American hybrid grape derived from a Concord seedling pollinated by mixed pollens of Delaware, and the long-forgotten Vinifera, Labruscana, Bourquiniana cross Walter variety. These grapes were developed by the prolific hybridizer A.J Caywood in 1868 at the Hudson River (NY) vineyard now occupied (1998) by the Benmarl Vineyard. Used to make fruity, quite sweet white wines with little perceptible "foxy" character. Mainly found in the N. American cool-climate regions of Ontario, Canada and Finger Lakes of N.Y. State where it typically ripens during early to mid-October.

EDELWEISS:
Created by Elmer Swenson, this cultivar is derived from an Ontario x (Beta x Witt) cross. Very winter-hardy, reportedly to -30 deg. F (approx -34 C). Produces amber colored fruit suitable for wine or as a tablegrape. Usually ripens around a month to five weeks before Concord.

EDEN:
Disappointing vitis hybrid variety, synonym name N.Y 11737, for New York State. Derived from an Ontario x (Triumph x Mills) crossing. Reported as having medium-poor vigor, low productivity and lacking in sufficient hardiness. This cultivar seems more suited to the mid-South and Deep South States of the U.S.A. (No other details as yet).

EGER 2:
Has alternate name Seyve-Villard 12-375 O.P and so appears to be a selection related to Villard Blanc. (No other details as yet other than this cross variety is grown in Hungary, and elsewhere, and is one of the parents of the Bianca and Landot Noir cultivars).

EINSET (SEEDLESS):
Patented, released in 1985, early ripening, shy-bearing cool-climate hybrid red tablegrape cultivar with unique strawberrylike flavor from W. New York's Geneva Research Station derived from the Fredonia and Canner varieties. Claimed as resistant to Botrytis and very hardy. Also recommended as useful for raisin production.

ELLEN SCOTT:
American hybrid variety developed by T. V. Munson. Lavendar colored grape with few soluble color pigments. Hardy and productive, this cultivar is capable of producing a flavorsome white wine. Suitable for growing in climates/soils that are known to support the Concord vine. Recommended by some as suitable for growing in Kansas and other south-central U.S. States.

ELVICAND:
Variety developed by T.V Munson from a cross reported as Elvira x (complex V. candicans, V. riparia, V. labrusca) variety. The cultivar is vigorous and hardy, self-fertilizing with subsequent open clusters of medium-sized berries that are somewhat sweet with slight V. candicans flavor. Generally ripens in late season and recommended as suitable for winemaking.

ELVIRA:
Reportedly discovered in Missouri in 1870, this old-line complex american labrusca/riparia/vinifera parentage variety is now considered to produce very mediocre and strongly "fox" flavored sparkling white wine blends. Vulnerable to fruit cracking because of thin skin, the grape typically has high acidity. Ripening at same time as Concord, it is resistant to Mildew and its general hardiness recommends it for difficult growing areas. A new variety, named Ventura, that upgraded the older cultivar in its resistance to fruit cracking was released in the 1970's by the Ontario Horticultural Research Institute of Canada.

EMERALD (SEEDLESS):
Seedless hybrid table grape that is one of the parents, along with the Athens variety, of the Marquis cool-climate wine/table grape.

EMILY:
Labrusca-vinifera hybrid variety, created by Peter Raab of Philadelphia in the 19th century. Historically interesting as one of the main varieties that allowed the eventual breeding of Chelois and other disease, pest and lime resistant french-american hybrids and rootstocks.

EONA:
Cultivar developed 1925 by N.E. Hansen in S. Dakota. Derived from a cross of Lady Washington (a complex Concord descendant) and the Beta variety. Has white/pink berry skin, growing in small, loose clusters. It is productive female pollinate, claimed as winter-hardy to -35 deg. F (about -38 C.), with a taste described as "mildly foxy". Main use is as a tablegrape.

ESPRIT:
Patented American x Vinifera cultivar developed in Wisconsin as suitable for wine or table use in short season, cold regions such as southwestern Wisconsin. A seedling derived from Villard Blanc it is claimed to possess some resemblance as a white wine to that produced from the Chardonnay variety. Ripens early to mid-season.

EUMALEN:
American labruscana derived from labrusca, vinifera and aestivalis parentage. Suitable for Table grape and Wine use. Ripens late mid-season. (No other details available other than it is of unproven ID).

EXTRA:
Variety reported as a T. V. Munson complex American (V.lincecumii) cross created from Big Berry x Triumph cultivars. (No other details as yet).

FESTIVEE:
Tablegrape variety developed by Vineland Research Station, Ontario, Canada and released in 1976. Has synonym name Vineland 53033. Derived from a cross between the Alden and Verdelet cultivars. Very vigorous and productive with moderate cold-hardiness. Susceptible to the Mildew fungus diseases, it ripens in late September (about a week before Concord).

FLAME (SEEDLESS):
Seedless table grape, also suitable for wine-making, widely grown in Australia. Also found in the cooler regions of N. America where it ripens during late September. Similar to the Himrod grape listed below.

FLAME TOKAY MUT.:
Tablegrape variety. Appears to be a synonym name for a mutated version of the Ahmeur Bou Ahmeur variety listed in the Geilweilerhof database (above). (No other details as yet).

FLORIDA FRY:
Complex V.rotundifolia (i.e. Muscadine) self-fertile cultivar derived from a Triumph x Florida AD 3-42 varieties cross. (No other details as yet other than it is claimed to have good resistance to Pierce's Disease and is recommended as a tablegrape variety suitable for growing in the Southern States of the U.S.A).

FLORENTAL:
Hybrid variety with Gamay Noir heritage. Has synonym name Burdin 7705 and is reportedly a french cultivar released in 1959. The vine lacks vigor, has early budbreak, ripens early with medium compact berry clusters. It has susceptibility to Botrytis. In the USA it apparently was only recently planted on an experimental basis by one grower in S.E. Pennsylvania and by the N.Y. Horticultural Station at Geneva NY.

FOCH:
(see Marechal Foch below).

FOSTER:
(No details as yet other than it is a selected Niagara variety clone version).

FREDONIA:
Very winter hardy native American labruscana hybrid red wine grape similar to and regarded as a close relative of the Concord grape. Although less flavorsome, it ripens some two weeks before its kin. Needs careful pruning for vigor and production to approach that of its kin. Developed in early 20th century. One of the parents of the Bath and Van Buren hybrid grape varieties and useful as an excellent table grape. (See above).

FRONTENAC:
Vigorous, extremely winter-hardy to -30 deg. F (ca -35 C.), heavy producing and disease resistant V. Riperia 89 x Landot 4511 (Noir) french/american hybrid variety created by the U. Minnesota Research Institute for upper midwest USA conditions. Susceptible to Powdery Mildew disease, but near-immunity to Downy Mildew, in excessively humid conditions. Ripens in late mid-season with good sugar content. Important to let fruit hang until fully mature in order to reduce troublesome high acids to reasonable levels. Used to produce a high quality, full-bodied red wine with cherry/plum aromas and moderate-to-low tannins that usually needs malolactic fermentation to reduce its cool climate acidity. Reportedly contains little trace of the wild V. Riperia herbaceousness. Recommended for North-Central regions of USA.

FRY:
Complex V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) cultivar derived from a Georgia 19-43 x USDA 19-11 cross. According to the Geilweilerhof (Genres) international database it has the synonym name Early Fry. Recommended as a (female pollinate) tablegrape variety suitable for use in the Southern States of the U.S.A. Claimed to have good resistance to Pierce's Disease.

GALIBERT 261-12:
Reported as a French/American V.hybrid. (No other details as yet).

GARONNET:
Once very popular in southern France. This french-american hybrid red wine grape needs Mediterranean-style heat to perform its best and is most suited to the Southwest U.S and Texas.

GEORGIA 19-43:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. (No other details as yet).

GLENORA:
Considered to be an extremely high-quality, moderately winter-hardy seedless large black table grape similar to the yellow-fleshed Himrod. Generally ripens during mid-late October.

GOLDEN MUSCAT:
Hardy, productive vine derived from a (Moore's) Diamond and Muscat Hamburg variety cross. Suitable for white wine production. Tendency to have high acid content in cool climate regions if not fully ripened by mid-late October, but can make intense semi-sweet aromatic wines in good years.

HARMONY:
Female variety almost exclusively used as a moderately productive rootstock for grapevines grown in the Gulf States of the southern U.S.A. Is the result of a Couderc 1613 x Dog Ridge variety cross. Normally resistant to Pierce's Disease but has shown that it can act as host to the bacterium. (No other details as yet).

HERBEMONT:
Thought to be a hybrid cultivar derived from a vinifera and aestivalis vine (ie. "Borquiniana" species) chance crossing. Named after Nicholas Herbemont who had developed this grape earlier than 1830. Is resistant to fungal diseases encountered in hot, humid summer regions such as the Gulf States of the U.S.A. Seldom ripens properly in cool climate regions. Used to create red or white wines similar to those of the (possible) clonal relative Black Spanish cultivar above.

HERBERT:
Derived from a Carter x Black Hamburg cross. Vigorous, productive and moderately winter hardy cultivar suitable for cool climates such as the Finger Lakes region of N.Y. State. Is one of the parents of the Buffalo grape found on decreasing acreages in British Columbia, Canada and elsewhere.

HIBERNAL (WEISS):
No other details other than this variety, developed in Germany, is derived from a Seibel 7053 x Riesling cross and has the synonym names Geisenheim GM 322-58 and Hybernal. Currently under test for use as a white wine grape in Ontario, Canada and in Central Europe.

HIGGINS:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) female pollinate cultivar derived from a Yuga x Unknown white male pollinator cross. Has synonym name Georgia 3. Grown in the Southern Gulf States of the U.S.A, it has good resistance to Pierce's Disease and is recommended for tablegrape use.

HIMROD:
Seedless grape released in 1952 and fairly widely grown in Western New York. Very winter hardy, usually ripening in early September. Derived from a cross between Ontario and Sultanina. Recommended as a deliciously flavored tablegrape and raisin producer. Is also used for white wine production.

HOPKINS:
According to the USDA database, this T.V Munson developed variety was derived from a complex Cynthiana (lincecumii, aestivalis, labrusca) cross with the obscure variety Post Oak. Some reports claim it makes a slightly superior red wine to the Norton variety. Does not flourish in lime-contaminated soils. (No other details as yet).

HORIZON:
Productive, vigorous patented white-wine hybrid grape variety derived from a Seyval Blanc x Schuyler cross. Recently released, (1996), from the Geneva Research Station of W. New York. Has synonym name Geneva White 7. Usually ripens during early to mid-October with bunch rot problems in some years. Claimed to produce pleasant apple peel flavors in its wine, although some taste experts have noted labrusca and hybrid aromas in some samples. Also recommended for juice production.

HOWARD:
Reported to be a complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar derived from a Scuppernong x V. rotundifolia cross. (No other details as yet).

HUNGARIAN:
Winegrape cultivar recommended for growing in Saskatchewan, Canada. May be synonym for the Okanagan Riesling variety. (No other details as yet).

HUNT:
V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) female pollinate variety derived from a Flowers x White Male#1 cross. Used for wine or tablegrape. No other details as yet.

HUSMAN:
American labruscana cultivar developed by T. V. Munson and recommended by some as suitable for planting in Kansas, Texas and other south-central States of the U.S.A. (No other details as yet).

INTERLAKEN:
Derived from the same parents as Himrod, this hybrid seedless variety is mainly recommended for use as a strongly flavored table or raisin grape. Usually buds late May and ripens in late August. Capable of producing a white wine, having some aging potential, suitable for blending. Currently grown in some quantity in the Pacific northern coastal regions of N. America and elsewhere. Vigorous with good quality grapes in warmer regions. In cooler areas it is hard frost sensitive. Also may show poor sets with unevenly sized berries. Berry splitting can also be a problem, so much so that some recommend the Reliance, Mars or Vanessa varieties as better tablegrape substitutes.

IONA:
Native American hybrid variety developed for use in New York State in 1855. Historically interesting as one of the parents, the other being Concord, of Diamond. Mild labrusca "foxy" flavor allows use in sparkling wine blends.

ISABELLA:
Moderately cold-resistant American labruscana grape grown on limited acreages in New York state for use as a tablegrape and in varietal and sparkling wine blends. A selected "bud sport" cultivar is currently grown in California under the name Pierce (has synonym name Royal Isabella). Still grown in cooler regions of Italy and Australia, where it is named Fragola. A selection with the name Albany Surprise is now grown in New Zealand. Also found in eastern Europe under a variety of alias names, (such as Seksarda in Croatia, former province of Yugoslavia and as Izabella in Hungary and Georgia CIS). This historically significant variety has over fifty synonym names (see Geilweilerhof database in the Foreword section above) as a result of its post-phylloxera popularity in the late 19th century. Thought to be derived from a native Vitis Labrusca grape of N. America and an unknown european vinifera probably created by random pollination as a result of the 18th century attempts to establish European vines in the U.S. Reputedly discovered in Dorchester, N. Carolina around 1816 it was promoted by William R. Prince, an influential nursery owner established in Flushing, N.Y, and named after a famous "southern belle", the wife of Col. George Gibbs. Currently being selectively removed and replaced by varieties that lack the "grapey/foxy" taste and flavor of this grape although it still has its admirers. Modern winemaking techniques have succeeded in eradicating the agent responsible, resulting in a popular, strawberry/boysenbery-like flavored wine where those techniques are practiced. It is still grown in quantity in Brazil and other fungus prone regions of South America. An example of random hybridization involving only N. American vine species that resulted in a successful wine is the Norton grape. (See below).

ISON:
(No information on this V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) variety as yet other than it was patented by William Ison in Griffin, Georgia, USA and is currently (1998) grown by a family winery in N. Carolina for use in creating a red, dry, varietal wine).

IVAN:
(No information on this grape yet other than it is an Oregon State chance seedling suitable for wine or juice. Ripens in late August-early September. Currently listed as an American labruscana derivative).

IVES (NOIR):
Early 19th century American labrusca grape discovery used to produce red wines strongly "foxy" in flavor. Highly vulnerable to Ozone gas pollution which causes diminished vigor and productivity. Should be planted in deep, well-drained soils or grafted on a vigorous rootstock such as "3309". One of the most deeply colored "tooth-stainers". Still widely grown in Brazil and other hot, humid, fungus prone regions of South America. Also found in Australia where it has the synonym name Kittredge.

JAEGER 70:
American variety derived from an early 19th century cross, created by Hermann Jaeger of Neosha, Missouri, between the native Vitis Lincecumii and Rupestris species. Played an important role in the development of hybrids because, as a female pollinate, it could be used to produce cross-pollinated seeds between American species and Vinifera, resulting eventually in the disease and pest resistant french-american and rootstock varieties of modern times.

(MARECHAL) JOFFRE:
Early variety with moderate vigor growth and yield used for creating red-wines. Reported by some to be a Kuhlmann hybrid closely related to Marechal Foch. Others point to ampelographic differences and regard it as an "Unknown ID" variety.

JUMBO:
Complex V.rotundifolia (i.e. Muscadine) female pollinate cultivar. Reported as derived from a Higgins x GA 19-11 cross. Recommended for use in the Southern States of the U.S.A as a tablegrape. Not to be confused with a similarly named V.labrusca variety that is reported to be a Concord O.P derived cultivar with the synonym name Big Concord.

KAY GRAY:
Elmer Swenson patented American labruscana, released in early 1980's, suitable for table, juice or white wine use. Claimed to be hardy to -40 deg. F. (ca -42 C.). Very vigorous, heavy bearer. Disease resistant, with some susceptibility to Black Rot. Ripens early in season with small clusters making it a poor tablegrape choice. Some use it to make a labrusca-style white wine that has the reputation of easy oxidation, so it is not high on commercial growers recommendation list. Currently grown on limited acreages in South Dakota. (No other details available as yet).

KEUKA:
Reported to be an early ripening variety created at the Geneva Institute of New York from a Chasselas Rose x Mills crossing. Has some ampelographic resemblance to the Delaware variety. Ripening around a week before Catawba it is moderately winter hardy with a V.vinifera flavor. (No other details as yet).

KE WAH DIN:
(No information on this variety suitable for winemakng other than it is listed as an American hybrid developed by the late Byron Johnson of Ohio. Hardy to -35 deg. F (ca -38 C.) and usually ripens in late August where planted in Oregon).

KISHWAUKEE:
(No details other than this variety is recommended to Minnesota growers as a hardy tablegrape).

LACROSSE:
Patented cold hardy American hybrid suitable for white wine or juice use. Derived from the Seyval Blanc hybrid variety. Ripens early to mid-season and claimed to have superior cold temperature resistance to its parent. Currently grown in Wisconsin, S. Dakota and elsewhere in the Midwest U.S.

LADY PATRICIA:
(No other details other than this cultivar, recommended for disease resistance in the State of Arkansas, is the result of a Siebel 14665 x Seyve Villard 20-365 hybrid cross that ripens around mid-September and has the synonym name of Illinois 182-1).

LAKE EMERALD:
Developed for resistance to Pierces Disease it is now mostly used as a rootstock in Florida. Was the first hybrid cultivar released by the University of Florida at Leesburg. Productive and vigorous in Florida it will test to 19.5 deg. Brix sugar content but has proved disappointing in recent Louisiana trials. Requires rapid cooling at harvest.

LAKEMONT (SEEDLESS):
Hardy, early to mid-October ripening grape developed by Geneva Research Station in Western New York. Suitable for making sweet, white dessert wines similar to, but milder than, Himrod, (see above), having been derived from the same parent cross. Also recommended as a tablegrape.

L'ACADIE (BLANC):
(aka Habitant Blanc). Technically known as cultivar V53261 created by the Ontario Horticultural Institute in Ontario, Canada. Moderately winter hardy white wine producing grape ripening around late September. Vee-trellis support is recommended for this moderately vigorous cultivar successfully grown in Nova Scotia, Canada.

L'AMBERTILLE:
White-wine producing variety grown on small 1 acre plot in Finger Lakes region of W. New York. New name for French hybrid Seyve Villard 23-512. Used to make a dry wine.

LANDAL:
Has synonym name Landot 244. Reported as derived from a Seibel 5455 x Seibel 8216 cross. (No other details as yet).

LANDOT NOIR:
Cold-hardy French-american hybrid grape with complex French/American hybrids (ie. Landot 244 x Eger 2) as parents. Mainly used for making fruity red wine of mild intensity that has had international medal recognition. Claimed by some to possess moderate resistance to Pierce's Disease and is successfully grown in several middle-latitude states of the U.S.A.

LATHAM:
Presumably a complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. (No other details as yet).

LEON MILLOT:
Earlier (September) ripening french-american hybrid red wine grape than, although derived from same cross, Marechal Foch below. Also known as Millot. Extensively grown in the Alsace region of France where it is known as "le medicin du vin" (or "wine doctor") for its ability to increase the color intensity of a red wine (eg. Pinot Noir) without perceptibly altering the quality. Also extensively planted in the Northeast and Midwest USA. Some consider the wine to be superior to Foch because of more distinct berry aromas. Best harvested at pH 3.4 and 19+ Brix in warmer climates if Carotene-caused discoloration is to be avoided. Market demand thought to be hampered by lack of name recognition.

LIBERTY:
Is a hybrid bunchgrape once considered suitable for use in Florida and the Gulf States. Usually ripens during mid-October for use as a tablegrape. However, it has shown problems with Pierce's Disease and uneven ripening of fruit on the bunch and is no longer on the recommended list for Florida.

LONG JOHN:
(No other details other than this cultivar is a Big Berry x Triumph hybrid cross and recommended as disease resistant in the State of Arkansas).

LORETTO:
(No other details as yet other than recommended as a disease resistant tablegrape suitable for planting in Arkansas).

LOUISE SWENSON:
Has synonym name ES 4-8-33. Developed by Elmer Swenson in 1980 and released around 1994 this harsh-cold (to -40 deg. F.) tolerant variety is a cross between ES 2-3-17 and Kay Gray. Disease resistant, other than susceptibility to easily controlled anthracnose, the fruit can be used to create a light-bodied white wine described as having a delicate and floral aroma. Current use is to blend it with Prairie Star wine.

LUCIE KUHLMANN:
Kuhlmann french-american hybrid suitable for producing red wine. Very vigorous cultivar ripening early to mid-season. Wine is described as well-balanced and mild, with a taste reminiscent of Gamay profile. (No other details available at present).

LUOLA:
Presumably a complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. (No other details as yet except a recommendation for tablegrape use.)

LUTIE:
According to the Geilweilerhof database (above) this cultivar is classified as a North American V. Labrusca derived from the Dracut Amber O.P. variety. Once fairly commonly grown in the Northeast region of the USA it can currently (1999) be found in certain U.S. North Central states. (No other information on either of these cultivars available at present).

LYNDEN BLUE:
Very early ripening seeded variety with large berries in small, open clusters. (No other details as yet other than recommended for the Pacific N.W. region of the USA).

MAGNOLIA:
Is a complex V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) cultivar derived from a (Thomas x Scuppernong) x (Topsail x Tarheel) cross. Has synonym name North Carolina 60-60. Is recommended as a wine (or tablegrape) cultivar. Used to make sweet white wines with floral flavors in the South-East and Gulf States of the U.S.A. Has some disease problems, particularly with fruit-rot, but has good resistance to Pierce's Disease.

MAGOON:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) self-pollinating cultivar derived from a Thomas x Burgaw cross. Claimed as resistant to Pierce's Disease, it is currently recommended for growing in the Southern and Gulf States of the U.S.A for use as a tablegrape crop.

MARECHAL FOCH:
(pronounced "mar-esh-shall-fosh"). Has synonym name Kuhlmann 188-2. Short season french-american hybrid small-cluster grape with good hard-cold tolerance to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) and diseases, ripening in early September. Grows well in sandy soils, but may need grafting for use in heavier soil types. Prof. Kuhlmann, the hybridizer, reported using an American riparia-rupestris hybrid variety as one of the parents but, confusingly, others argue that he instead misleadingly used the Gamay based french-american hybrid Oberlin 595 S.P, developed by his father-in-law, as the cross with Goldriesling in order to create the offspring cultivar. Noted for producing somewhat light, yet deeply colored and strongly varietal, wines described as having a "Burgundian" character. Usually needs the help of carbonic maceration or hot-pressing to enhance quality. Birds find the small berries very attractive. Also known under the name Foch. (See above).

MARGUERITE:
Reported to be a V.hybrid Post Oak 2 x Herbemont cross. (No other details as yet).

MARQUIS:
Newly released (1996) variety by W. New York's Geneva Research Station from a cross between the Athens and Emerald (Seedless) grapes. Large cluster, winter hardy, seedless, delicate white-wine producing or excellent tablegrape with mild "foxy" flavor and moderate disease resistance. Ripens in mid-September as a mildly fruity berry, developing a rich Labrusca flavor if left to ripen on the vine. Promising results have been reported for Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan and New York.

MARS:
Largest of the seedless blue berries in medium clusters. Hardy, early variety with moderately vigorous productivity. Recommended as good tablegrape for Oregon. Some describe labrusca flavor profile as similar to the Concord. Normally ripens in the mid-to-late September timeframe.

MELODY:
Productive, cold-hardy, bunch rot resistant, white wine grape developed by Geneva Research Station of N.Y. that does not require cluster-thinning. Released in 1985, the grape claims Pinot Blanc as one of its parents and its off-dry wine versions tend to have the same fruitiness as the parent grapewine product. Currently, (1997), overshadowed by the success of Cayuga (White) and consequent poor market demand.

MERRIMAC:
Tablegrape variety derived from a Carter x Black Hamburg cross. Appears to have been commonly grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York State in the 19th cent. Has synonym name of Rogers 19. Vigorous, moderately productive/hardy, ripening after Concord.

MIDSOUTH:
(No other information available at present other than it is a hybrid developed for resistance to Pierce's Disease in Florida and other Gulf States of the U.S.A. and reportedly has similarities to the Blue Lake and Conquistador bunchgrapes).

MILLS:
Variety developed in the 19th century in Canada, reportedly from a Muscat Hamburg x Creveling cross. Winter tender and has medium vigor/productivity in New York State. (No other details as yet).

MISS(ISSIPPI) BLANC:
This cultivar is reported as derived from a Galibert 261-12 x (Extra x Marguerite) seedling, the latter two varieties being complex V.lincecumii varieties reported as created by T. V. Munson. Used in the production of white-wine blends for sparkling wines in Florida, it was developed by N.H. Loomis at a USDA experiment station (long since closed) in Mississippi. Released by Mississippi State at the same time as Miss(issippi) Blue and Midsouth. All three are resistant to Pierce's disease.

MISS(ISSIPPI) BLUE:
This variety is reported as derived from a Moore (Early) x Dog Ridge cross, the latter variety being V.champini, developed by N. H. Loomis at a (long closed) USDA station in Mississippi and released at the same time as Miss(issippi) Blanc and Midsouth, all three being resistant to Pierce's disease).

MISSOURI RIESLING:
Has synonym name Grein 1;Riesling. Derived from a Taylor x Unknown V. riparia, V. labrusca cross. (No other details as yet other than it is an old-line nineteenth century American labruscana variety once commonly grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York).

MONTICELLO:
V. hybrid cultivar derived from a complex (Fredonia x Niagara) x (Fredonia x Athens) parentage cross. Released in 1973, this productive, disease resistant variety resembles Steuben (see below). Normally ripens around two weeks earlier than Concord and can be used to make a fruity, mildly "foxy" wine of good quality.

MOORE EARLY:
Reported as a medium vigor but poorly producing Concord x Unknown variety tablegrape cultivar that ripens around 2-3 weeks before the former variety. (No other details as yet).

MÜNCH:
(a.k.a Muench). Native American variety developed by T.V Munson in 1888 from Herbemont and Neosho varieties and known to be one parent of the complex American/Vinifera St. Francis cultivar. Reported as suitable for growing in Missouri. Because of its lack of soluble pigments it is used for producing a varietal "gris" (ie. light pink) wine reported as being interesting, and spicy, somewhat in the manner of Gewürztraminer. (No other details as yet.)

MUSCADINE:
Best known name for native American "Vitis Rotundifolia" species of grapevine commonly found in the Southern states of the U.S. and Mexico. Scuppernong is one of the more familiar variety names.

NEOSHO:
(No details as yet other than it is one of the direct parents of the Muench cultivar).

NERON:
(a.k.a Kuhlmann 296-1). Hybrid variety used to produce a blending wine with reported strong Pinot Noir profile taste. Used almost exclusively as a flavoring grape due to its uneconomical small bunches of tiny berries. (No other details as yet).

NESBITT:
Muscadine cultivar widely grown in the S.E states of the USA. Similar in most respects to the Carlos grape above.

NEW YORK MUSCAT:
Muscat-type variety suitable for wine or tablegrape production. Moderately hardy with loose, large-berried clusters. Claimed to make a pleasing red wine with fairly low acidity.

NIABELL:
Has synonym name of California L 11-3. Developed by H. Olmo in 1942, this cultivar was released in 1958 and is derived from an (Early) Campbell x Niagara cross. The vine is vigorous and productive and tolerant to Powdery Mildew. Ripens in mid-season, with large berries on the bunch. Occasionally used for making semi-sweet wines, this variety is more generally recommended as use as a tablegrape. Currently grown in many countries. A variation with the name Early Niabell has the synonym name California L 11-2.

NIAGARA:
Root disease and cold resistant, reportedly to -15 deg. F (approx -22 C), native American labruscana hybrid grape derived from Concord and Cassady American hybrids. Introduced in the Northeast USA in 1882. Like its parent Concord counterpart this variety requires quite high heat, soil of optimum fertility and grafting to a good growth rootstock (eg. "3309") for best results. Used to create fruity white wines with strong "grapey" flavor, usually sweet finished, but also found in dry versions. Suitable also as a Table grape. Possibly one of the few native American hybrids that will remain popular in the U.S. because of a wide consumer base created after World War II. Plantings are mainly found in the Eastern and Mid-West regions of the U.S. where it ripens about 1 week earlier than Concord. At its best when blended with a neutral wine.

NOAH:
19th century (1869) labrusca white-wine producing grape with somewhat "foxy" flavors. Parents are Hartford - (a cross between Isabella and an unnamed labrusca) - and the interesting 19th century Taylor variety. Has several synonym names including Belo Otelo, Charvat and Tatar Rizling. At last report small acreages are still planted on the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and in cooler areas of Croatia, Romania and France.

NOBLE:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar, derived from a Thomas x Tarheel cross. Has synonym name N.C 20-119. Widely grown in the S.E and Gulf states of the USA. Successfully used in Arkansas for producing red wine and juice. Also recommended as a tablegrape. Similar to the Carlos grape above.

NORRIS:
Is a bunchgrape hybrid resistant to Pierce's Disease for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. However latest reports indicate low resistance to fruit cracking and anthracnose so it is no longer recommended.

NORTON:
This well-known native N. American V.aestivalis cultivar, with the alias name Virginia Seedling, is thought to be derived by chance pollination involving the American aestivalis native species. Is mainly found in the warmer regions of the southeast U.S.. DNA analysis carried out in the early 1990's has shown that this cultivar is identical to the Cynthiana variety listed above. Substantial acreages are grown in the State of Virginia, and Missouri where it has had over a century-long presence, that reportedly ripen in late September. The deeply pigmented, aromatic characteristics of the fully ripe fruit used to create this historically interesting full red wine are said to include coffee and spice-like flavor with little or no "foxy" aroma providing problems with both high pH and high titratable acidity are appropriately addressed. Vines are tolerant of common fungal infestations and easily protected with fungicides. Planting in well-draining soils is required if rot is to be avoided. Foliar Magnesium spray application is recommended in Arkansas. Crops are best enhanced with high training, preferably Geneva Double Curtain. Birds find the small fruit very attractive.

OBERLIN 595 S.P:
Is reportedly a hybrid created from the cross between a Gamay and American riperia variety. Reported by some to be one of the parents of Marechal Foch. Used to produce a tannic, somewhat rustic red wine with good aging ability. Quite widely grown in France due to its care-free hardiness.

OBERLIN 716:
V. riparia x Gamay Noir variety reported as quite similar to Oberlin 595 above. (No other details as yet).

OKANAGAN RIESLING:
This "provenance unknown" grape is reported by some to be a cold-hardy native American labrusca hybrid. Alternatively, Canadian viticulturists believe it to be a V. Berlandieri x V. Riparia cross variety named Teleki 8B developed by the Teleki Research Institute, Hungary. Has synonym name of Inkameep Riesling. Usually ripening around mid-September, it is currently found on small acreages in British Columbia, Canada, the N.W. USA and, possibly, in New Zealand. Known to have no relationship to the german Riesling V. vinifera variety (see above). Berries reported to have a Muscat-like flavor, at around 18 deg. Brix sugar content, which can then degenerate into labrusca-style flavors if allowed to ripen much further. Can be used to produce a bland varietal white-wine best used for blending although some report varietal success with a short (up to 36 hour) skin contact during fermentation.

ONTARIO:
Developed in 1908 at the N.Y. Research Station, it is now used sparingly as a white tablegrape because of its strong American labruscana flavor. It in turn was derived from the Winchell and Moores Diamond cultivars. Its main claim to fame is being one of the parents, the other being Zinfandel, of the Schuyler hybrid cultivar.

ORLANDO (SEEDLESS):
Is a mid-to-late September ripening hybrid bunchgrape resistant to Pierce's Disease. Propagated for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A as a tablegrape. According to the U. of Florida it requires grafting on Dog Ridge variety rootstock for good growth and yields under alkaline (7.0 pH) soil conditions or sandy soil. Normally grafting is not required.

ORION:
Variety derived from a Optima x Seyval Blanc cross. Has synonym name Geilweilerhof GA-58-30. Has achieved some popularity in the United Kingdom as a white wine producer although currently overshadowed by the somewhat similar Phoenix cultivar. Not to be confused with the V.vinifera Orion Gris variety. (No other details as yet).

OTHELLO:
Developed Ontario, Canada in 1859, this cultivar is the result of a cross between the Clinton and Black Hamburg varieties. Historically interesting as one of the cultivars widely planted in Europe as replacement for vinifera varieties devastated by the phylloxera crisis in the mid-19th century. Acreages still exist in France where the produce is used to make a white sweet dessert wine.

PATRICIA:
(No other details other than this is a tablegrape cultivar Soraya x IAC 544-41 hybrid cross allegedly developed in Brazil. Has synonym name of IAC 871-41. Not to be confused with a similarly named chance seedling discovered around 1915 in Ontario, Canada that is vigorous, disease-resistant, productive and matures early with a close resemblance to Concord and recommended for planting in Arkansas).

PHOENIX:
(No other details other than it is a recent promising release with synonym name Geilweilerhof GA 49-22. Has direct parentage of Bacchus x Villard Blanc and is reported as a German white-wine creating variety cross planted in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada and, recently, in England).

PINARD:
French-American hybrid, technically known as Kuhlmann 191-1, suitable for winemaking. The small berry bunches ripen early. Its highly flavored grapes are mainly used to flavor neutral wines toward the Burgundian profile.

PLANTET:
This variety is reportedly the french-american hybrid Seibel 5455 and is thought by some to be related to Jacquez and so not suitable for the New York State Finger Lakes (USA) or other hard-freeze liable regions. Still one of the most widely planted hybrids remaining in France because of its reliable productivity. Mainly used in that country to produce a decent table wine.

POST OAK 2:
(No other details as yet).

PRACHTTRAUBE:
Has synonym names Jean Mace and Raisin Superbe. (No other details other than it is a white-wine producing variety developed in France and derived from a Boskokisi x Madeleine Royale variety cross.

PRAIRIE STAR:
Also known by the synonym name ES 3-24-7. Is a cross between ES 2-7-13 and ES 2-8-1. Developed by Elmer Swenson in 1980 and released around 1994. Harsh-cold (to -40 deg. F) tolerant, this variety is quite disease resistant other than a susceptibility to easily controllable Anthracnose. Reported as capable of making a neutral varietal wine in most years it is currently used to add body and finish to such other white wines as Louise Swenson.

PRESIDENT:
This variety is a Vinifera and American native Labrusca cross developed by T.V Munson dating from the late 19th century and once popular in eastern Canada where it was used in varietal sparkling, and other, wines by the now defunct Brights Winery of Ontario province.

RAMSEY:
V. champinii variety used almost solely as rootstock. Has synonym name Saltcreek. Noted for superior resistance to wet, saline soil conditions and Pierces Disease (although recent observation has noted it can act as host to the bacterium). (No other details as yet).

RAVAT 6 (BLANC):
French-American hybrid with the technical name of Ravat #6 and parentage of Chardonnay and Seibel 5474. According to Phillip Wagner, late dean of eastern U.S. winemakers, this variety can produce high-quality white wines reminiscent of its famous Vinifera parent. Requires grafting to a suitable rootstock and needs careful spraying regime for protection from fungus diseases.

RAVAT 51 (VIGNOLES):
Variety widely grown in the cooler regions of the northeast American continent, including Canada, and middle band of states of the USA. This very cold-hardy, late budding, french-american hybrid small-cluster grape ripens in late September. Requires grafting to good vigor rootstock for fruit-bud development. Due to high acid content, is recommended for making white dry, late-harvest and ice-wines. Reported to have Pinot de Corton and Le Subereux french-american hybrids as direct parents. Currently very popular as a high quality dessert wine because of its restrained fruitiness, high acid and good balance.

RAVAT 262 (NOIR):
French-american hybrid grape related to Pinot Noir. Some stock, usually ripening around mid-September, is planted in the Eastern states of the U.S. in order to make a currently light, candy-flavored red wine. Sometimes misnamed Ravat 34, a much lighter skinned grape.

RAYON d'OR:
Cool-climate white-wine and table grape. Created early in the search for suitable french-american hybrid grapes and is one of the parents of the Vidal Blanc cultivar. Produces fruit with high sugar content suitable for making crisp, well-balanced, semi-sweet or sparkling wine blends. This variety is still grown in the Loire region of France. It is successful in the state of Missouri where it is used to produce a good quality wine with a distinctively Loire-valley taste profile. Takes Botrytis (ie. Noble Rot) infection extremely well and the bunches hang until Thanksgiving in that State allowing production of an exceptionally successful sweet wine.

REGALE:
Is a vigorous and productive red Muscadine variety. Regarded by many as similar to the Noble hybrid cultivar. Sugar content tends to be fairly low, about 15 deg. Brix. The grape is juice rich and color stability is good. The wine is reported to have less varietal character than other red Muscadines with the advantage that it appeals to consumers who tend to reject the standard varietal wine.

REGENT:
(Pronounced "ray-ghent"). Has synonym name of Geilweilerhof 67-198-3. Has complex parentage of Diana x Chambourcin cultivars. Bred for disease resistance, a recent (1998) vintage in the Pfaltz, Germany, required no spraying during the season and produced a good red wine. Growers in Michigan, USA, report winter hardiness is better than Riesling with frost resistance of at least -16 deg. F. (ca -27 C.) with no protection. Wine reported to have good color, moderate tannins and a fruit aroma/taste profile reminiscent of Rhone, France red wines.

RELIANCE:
Very productive and hardy cultivar recommended as seedless tablegrape suitable for state of Oregon (USA). Medium pink/red berries on large clusters. Reportedly has fruity, diluted, muscat flavor profile. Ripens in mid-to-late September.

ROSETTE:
Very hardy French/American hybrid, (a.k.a Seibel 1000), cultivar with medium-sized berries that ripen in mid-season. Historically interesting as the first french-american variety import to be introduced into Canada and one of the first, after Geneva (NY) research station propagation (post-1927), to be planted - (1930's by the Urbana Wine Company, later known as Gold Seal of Keuka Lake, and one other 5-acre private plot) - on trial acreages in the Finger Lakes region of New York. Currently recommended for use in New Mexico and elsewhere as basis for acceptable rosé and red wines.

ROUCANEUF:
Has better resistance to Pierces Disease than other French/American hybrids. Also known as Seyve Villard 12-309. In dry, long-season regions it is mainly used to produce a well-balanced, somewhat rustic, red wine. Reported to lack fruit quality and productive vigor when planted in the Gulf Coast regions of the U.S.A.

ROUGEON:
(a.k.a Siebel 5898). Red wine grape currently grown in the Finger Lakes region of New York State and recommended for New Mexico as a hardy vine with somewhat erratic production potential in that it sometimes bears biennially. Usually ripens in early October. Susceptible to bunch rot in some locations and requires harvesting at lower soluble solids in most years. Its wine is recommended for blending with wines made from American labruscana grapes, such as Catawba, in order to give good red color/intensity. Useful component in certain Port blends.

RUBY:
Reported as a Keuka x Ontario cross developed around the mid-1930's at the Geneva Institute of N.Y. Found to lack vigor and overbears with poor hardiness in New York State. Usually ripens around 1 week before Catawba.

SALVADOR (NOIRE):
This red-fleshed grape cultivar is reported to be the popular name of the Seibel 123 hybrid. It is presently listed as grown on small acreages in Brazil, Romania, Spain and the USA. Currently used in the latter country to enhance the color of Californian fortified Port wines. Another grape, Salvador (Blanca) is listed by at least one database as commonly found in Spain. (No other details as yet).

SCHUYLER:
Is a cross between Zinfandel and Ontario varieties. A heavy producer, it is early to mid-season ripening. Severe pruning is needed to keep it from overbearing. The juice is sweet with a vinous taste. Unlike most American hybrids it does not have slip skin fruit. Suitable for Table, Juice or Wine production.

SCUPPERNONG:
Historically notable native american Muscadine grape variant with the usual characteristic "musky/grapey" flavor. Cultivated since 1809, although wine was reportedly made by French immigrants from wild vine fruit as early as the mid-16th century. Mostly confined to the South-East and Gulf states of the U.S. where it is used to produce sweet-finished white wines. Reported to be very resistant to Pierces Disease.

SENECA:
Reported to be the result of a Lignan Blanc x Ontario cross. Very early ripening, (late August), french-american hybrid white-wine grape, also suitable as a seeded tablegrape, recommended for use in New Mexico and other cool-climate areas. Moderately winter hardy and is susceptible to Powdery Mildew. Widely planted in the North-East regions of the USA.

SERENA:
No other details other than it is a white-wine producing variety developed at Geisenheim, Germany and derived from a Saperavi Severnyi x (Foster x Prachttraube) complex cultivar cross. Currently under test for use as a white wine grape in Europe.

SEYVAL BLANC:
(a.k.a Seyval). A french-american hybrid grape that can be used to make high quality white wines of various styles.Crisp, fruity dry versions have sometimes been likened to French "Chablis" in aroma and taste. Wine intensity tends to be perceived as "thin", consequently either malolactic or barrel fermentation followed by oak aging is recommended to enhance quality. Grown extensively in the colder northern temperate zones of N. America and Europe, grafting to disease-resistant rootstock (eg. "5BB") is recommended for most sites. Ripening usually occurs around mid-late September. Fruit has high vulnerability to Botrytis bunchrot. This variety also one of the parents of Chardonel, a hybrid-grape cross sharing Chardonnay as the other parent.

SHERIDAN:
American labruscana variety that produces big, compact clusters of large Concord-type berries that normally ripen in late September. Vigorous and productive, often requiring heavy pruning. Very hardy to -15 deg. F. (ca -26 C.), disease resistant and suited for most growing sites. Derived from a Herbert x Worden variety crossing.

SIBERA:
No other details other than this variety was developed at Geisenheim, Germany, and is a Saperavi Severnyi x (Foster x Prachttraube) complex cultivar cross. Currently under test for use as a white-wine producer grape in Europe.

SOUTHLAND:
V.rotundifolia (i.e Muscadine) variety derived from a Thomas x Topsail O.P crossing. Has synonym name Meridian 13. Claimed to have good resistance to Pierce's Disease. (No other details as yet other than it is recommended as a Tablegrape suitable for the Gulf States of the U.S.A).

SOVEREIGN CORONATION:
Variety developed in Canada and released prior to 1978. Has synonym names Coronation and Summerland 361. Derived from a Lady Patricia x Himrod cross and popular as a Concord-like tablegrape. (No other details as yet).

SOVEREIGN OPAL:
(No information on this grape at present other than it is currently grown in British Columbia, Canada).

ST. CROIX:
Patented cold hardy American hybrid suitable for Wine and Juice production. Reported by growers to be hardy to -25 deg. F. (ca -32 C.), lower if snow/mulch covered. Disease resistant and ripens early. Cluster thinning often needed on this vigorous vine. Plantings can be found in Wisconsin, S. Dakota and elsewhere in the U.S Midwest.

ST. FRANCIS:
Complex American/Vinifera variety derived from a Muench x Gros Guillaume cross. (No other details other than it is currently used as a tablegrape).

ST. PEPIN:
Patented sibling cold hardy to -20 deg. F. (ca -29 C.) American hybrid related to LaCrosse suitable for making fruity white wine claimed to have Riesling character, or as a good tablegrape. Ripens early in season. It must be planted near other grape varieties because it is a female pollinate and requires cross-pollination. Some trials are currently underway in S. Dakota and other moderately cold-winter States.

ST. VINCENT:
Late ripening (Oct) harsh-cold hardy red wine grape variety grown in mid-Ohio that is thought by some to be a Dr. Hansen release from the Missouri State Grape Research Station at Mountain Grove. If the assumption is correct it is a V. vinifera x complex T. V. Munson american hybrid. Another report has it as a Chambourcin x Pinot Noir chance seedling. Reported in the literature as a discovered well-adapted "provenance unknown" vine in Missouri during the mid-1970's. Has some ampelographic similarities to the DeChaunac variety. Used in Ohio to produce wine with mild tannins and elevated acid content best enhanced with french oak flavors. Finished wine is regarded by some as vaguely similar to a young Italian "Chianti" beverage.

STERLING:
Muscadine cultivar widely grown in S.E United States. Similar to the Carlos grape above.

STEUBEN:
Hardy, vigorous American native labrusca variety derived from a Wayne x Sheridan labrusca cross. Commonly used to make mild, grapey, red wine. Usually ripens around late September. Also used as juice and tablegrape provider. Found mostly in the Eastern and Mid-West regions of the U.S.. Easily adaptable to most growing sites, cluster thinning is usually necessary.

STOVER:
Is a hybrid bunchgrape derived from a complex V.Shuttleworthii O.P (Aestivalis?) Mantey x Seyve Villard 12-309 cultivar cross. Is resistant to Pierce's Disease and designed for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. Requires grafting on Dog Ridge or Tampa rootstock in alkaline soils for good yields and growth. Mainly used in single varietal or blended sparkling wines.

SUNBELT:
Patented, very hardy seeded grape similar to Concord and better suited to Southern U.S.A. climate where ripening evenly can be a problem. Excellent disease resistance. Claimed to produce juice of intense color and flavor.

SUPER HAMBURG:
Variety derived from a Campbells Early x Muscat Hamburg cross. (No other details as yet).

SUPREME:
V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) female pollinate variety reported as derived from a Lebanese No.9 x Gar- Supreme cross. (No other details as yet other than it is listed as suitable for planting in the Gulf and south-eastern regions of the U.S.A.)

SUWANNEE:
Is designed to be resistant to Pierce's Disease for use in Florida and the lower Gulf States of the U.S.A. Mainly used in sparkling wine blends.

SVELTER:
Winegrape cultivar recommended for growing in Saskatchewan, Canada. (No other details as yet).

SWENSON (RED):
American hybrid variety derived from a Minn 78 x Seibel 11803 cross. Mainly suitable as tablegrape. Claimed by some as capable of making a good rosé wine. Susceptible to Downy Mildew. Ripens early and claimed to be hardy to -30 deg. F. (ca -35 C.). (No other details available as yet).

SWENSON (WHITE):
Has synonym name ES 6-1-43. Very vigorous variety developed in 1980 and released around 1994 by Elmer Swenson at the Univ. of Minnesota from an Edelweiss x E.S. 442 cross that ripens around early October. Has thick-skin berries of moderate acidity. Claimed to be very frost (to -30 deg. F) and disease resistant, with a hardiness exceeding that of the St. Pepin variety (above), and reported as closely resembling the latter cultivar in wine quality. Recommended as a candidate for the production of Late Harvest and "Eiswein" (ie. white Icewine) in Minnesota.

TAMPA:
Commonly used as rootstock for the Conquistador, Orlando (Seedless), Black Spanish and Stover bunchgrapes in order to promote good growth and yield on cultivated alkaline soilsites in Florida and the Gulf States. Recently noted as having the best resistance to Pierce's Disease and does not act as host to the bacterium.

TARHEEL:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. Derived from a Luola x (Eden x (Eden x V. Munsonia)) cross. Mainly grown in the South and Gulf States of the U.S.A where it is recommended as a suitable wine or tablegrape variety, having good Pierce's Disease resistance.

TAYLOR:
Historically important American (V. labrusca x V. riparia) variety. Has the synonym name Bullitt. One of the most compatible vines used by the hybridizers during the 19th century phylloxera crisis in Europe. Still grown on that continent where it is mainly used to produce a sweet dessert wine. Is best known as one of the pedigree parents of the Missouri Riesling and Noah oldline varieties.

TETRA:
Derived from a Herbert x Worden cross. This hybrid variety is widely grown in Georgia (CIS) and the wine from it is extensively used in that countries blended red wines.

THOMAS:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. (No other details as yet).

TOPSAIL:
Complex V.rotundifolia (ie. Muscadine) cultivar. Derived from a Latham x Burgaw cross. Mainly grown in the Deep South and Gulf States of the U.S.A where it is recommended as a suitable tablegrape variety with good Pierce's Disease resistance.

TOTMUR:
French-American hybrid, (a.k.a Baco 2-16), suitable for Winemaking. Derived from Baco 45A and Baco 1 and as such is of labrusca/riperia/vinifera ancestry. Ripens very early in season. The acidic white wines produced by french growers from this variety are mainly used for distillation into Cognac Brandy.

TRAMINETTE:
Newly, (1996), released variety derived from a Traminer Rot x Joannes Seyve 23416 cross by Cornell Univ. viticulturists. Quite cold-hardy, bears large clusters and is suitable for cool climates, although own-rooted cuttings are reported to show rooting problems and shy fruit productivity in some areas. Suitable grafted roots are recommended by the developers. Vine has moderate vigor, requires no spraying against Powdery Mildew but may need a couple for protection against Downy Mildew if season is unusually wet. This late midseason - (generally early to mid-October) - ripening white-wine producer variety is claimed to be superior in its balance of sugar, acid and pH levels to that of the most famous of its parents, (see above), and also has less bitter phenols. Initially simple, the wine ages well; developing honey and apricot flavors in 2 to 5 bottle years. Small trial commercial and nursery acreages can be found in the Canandaigua and Seneca Lakes area of New York State's Finger Lakes region, and other regions, because of the current acceptance of this hybrid grape. State of Virginia trial crops proved to be very resistant to bunch rot after the unusually heavy rainfall of 1996.

TRIOMPHE D'ALSACE:
Variety derived from a MG 101-14 x Knipperle cross. Has synonym name Kuhlmann 319-1. Early ripening hybrid cultivar gaining popularity in the United Kingdom where it is used as a red wine producer. (No other details as yet other than it is attractive to birds and insects).

TRIUMPH:
This vitis hybrid cultivar, used for tablegrape production, is a Concord x Chasselas Musque hybrid cross that has several synonym names including Campbell's Concord and Jossling St. Albans. Not to be confused with the similarly named V. Rotundifolia cultivar, synonym name Georgia 9-62, developed earlier by T. V. Munson from a Fry x Georgia 29-49 cross).

UHUDLER:
No other details as yet other than it is reported to be a collective name for american rootstock varieties currently grown in certain southern Styria and South Burgenland districts of Austria. The fruit is used there to make typical labrusca-style wines (legal since 1992) having strawberry-reminiscent aroma's etc.

VAN BUREN:
Very early ripening, hardy American Labruscana (Fredonia x Worden) seeded table cultivar developed and released in 1935 by the Geneva, N.Y. Agricultural Station. Has characteristics similar to the Worden variety. Susceptible to fungus diseases like Downy Mildew and problems with split-skin etc.

VANDAL-CLICHE:
Popular name for the promising Cliche 8414 variety derived from a Vandal 64 x Vandal 163 1984 cross by a private breeder resident in Quebec, Canada. No other details as yet other than it is a cold-climate hardy cultivar that has successfully created a white wine and is currently (1999) undergoing field trial in Upper Canada.

VANESSA RED (SEEDLESS):
Moderately hardy, early ripening (around mid-September) hybrid cultivar released by Ontario, Canada, Research Station that generally buds in late May. Is the result from crossing Seneca and a cultivar descended from the Bath and Interlaken varieties. Fruity, sweet-tasting variety resistant to cracking in wet conditions. Very disease resistant and winter hardy. Very vigorous when first planted but growth slows down eventually.

VALIANT:
Cold-hardy to -40 deg. F (ca -42 C.) red wine grape cultivar developed from a local cultivar cross with Fredonia at South Dakota State University. Currently grown in Minnesota, S. Dakota and in some other US and Canadian midwest states. Mostly used in blends, it ripens about three weeks before Concord. (No other information on this cultivar at present).

VAROUSSET:
Often mid-late October ripening French-american hybrid red-wine grape suitable for cool climate regions.

VEEBLANC:
Experimental French-American hybrid developed at the Vineland Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, Canada in 1961 from a 1953 cross between the Cascade and a Seyve-Villard hybrid cultivar. (No other details as yet).

VENTURA:
Cold hardy to -25 deg. F. (ca -32 C.) American hybrid developed in 1974 by the Ontario Horticultural Research Institute of Canada. Is a cross between the Elvira V. Riparia variety and Chelois. Has improved resistance to fruit cracking. Recommended as suitable for making crisp labrusca-flavored wine, or juice production. Ripens late September, with berries that are high in sugar and acid content if left past maturity. The vine has some susceptibility to tomato ringspot virus and requires grafting if grown on virus-infected sites. Currently grown in Canada, S. Dakota and other mid-west U.S. states.

VENUS:
Vigorous seedless hybrid variety released by the University of Arkansas. Generally buds in late May and ripens around mid-to-late September. The cultivar gives large berries, in well-filled medium clusters, with a distinctive "grapey" flavor profile, with muscat and spice. Not always completely seedless. Has susceptibility to rot in wet/humid conditions because of packed berries in the bunch when ripe. This blue-black skinned grape was developed for use in the middle band or south-central states of the U.S.A. Recommended for tablegrape and grapejuice production.

VERDELET:
Mainly planted in the Finger Lakes region of Western New York state and in the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario and Okanagan, B.C. regions of Canada. Suitable for eating as a table grape as well as for making white wine. Cold hardiness is not as good as that of competing varieties. Usually ripens around mid-October.

VERGENNES:
Moderately productive and marginally hardy old-line nineteenth century American V. labrusca variety once widely grown in New York. Has Dracut O.P (Amber) variety listed in USDA database (above) as pedigree parent. (No other details as yet other than it appears to have a similar relationship with the Lutie variety).

VIDAL BLANC:
Popular late-season (around mid-late September) maturing french-american hybrid white-wine creating variety producing large clusters with fruity, floral flavors and good balance. Requires sites with long growing season and is moderately cold-resistant to -5 deg. F. (ca -20 C.). Needs grafting (eg. "SO4" rootstock) for extra vigor when used in certain soil conditions. Descended from the Ugni Blanc of France, (aka Trebbiano of Italy) and Rayon d'Or, it usually needs cluster thinning to achieve superior results. Made in a variety of styles - (i.e: Dry to sweet including late-harvest dessert style and ice wines). Cool region grapes vinified in a Rhine/Mosel manner are said to have a Riesling-like character.

VILLARD BLANC:
French-american hybrid grape derived from a Seibel 6468 x Seibel 6905 cross. Has technical synonym name Seyve-Villard 12-375. Vigorous, productive, fungus disease resistant. Used mostly for making a fruity, mildly intense white wine. Benefiting from oak-aging, it has a nuanced "smoky" flavor in the better vintage years that some find reminiscent of Chardonnay. Still widely planted in France despite E.U. rules attempting to phase-in strict variety limitations. It is also grown in the cooler regions of the Northern U.S. and Canada. Does not always fully mature its fruit in very cool regions such as the Finger Lakes region of N.Y. because of late ripening around late October-early November. Claimed by some to possess moderate resistance to Pierce's Disease. Best grown on shallow, mild lime-content soils because it has been reported that juice from vines grown on rich soils develops a protein haze during fermentation. Currently recommended for planting in Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma. Also recommended as a tablegrape when fully ripened.

VILLARD NOIR:
Variety derived from a Seibel 7053 x Seibel 6905 cross, the latter variety also being a parent of Villard Blanc above. Has synonym technical designation Seyve-Villard 18-315. Still commonly grown in France for use as a winegrape where it ripens late mid-season and is a fungus disease resistant heavy producer.

VINCENT:
Very deep red wine grape-cross released in 1967 by the Horticultural Research Institute of Canada at Vineland, Ontario. Suitable for producing full-bodied table/port style wines. Limited acreages of this cold hardy variety are grown in the Finger Lakes region of W. New York mainly for use as a "teinturier-style" blend coloring agent. Ripens in mid-October. Has some susceptibility to Powdery Mildew fungus.

VIVANT:
Hybrid cross released in 1983 by Ontario Horticultural Research Institute of Canada. Ripens early October in Ontario. Hardiness slightly less than Concord yet vulnerable to fungal diseases. Although vigorous and productive this cultivar has not excited much interest despite claims of good white wine - similar to Riesling - production.

WALTER:
American/vinifera hybrid variety developed by the prolific New York (USA) hybridizer Andrew Jackson Caywood in the mid-19th century. Its claim to fame now rests on its use in the development of the Dutchess cultivar. (See above).

WATKINS:
Reported to be a cross of Ontario x Mills. (No information on this grape as yet other than it is an early ripening variety developed at the Geneva Institute in the Finger Lakes region of N.Y State and is one of the parents of the Buffalo grape found on small acreages in British Columbia, Canada).

WAYNE:
Reported to be an early ripening cross of the Ontario x Mills varieties. Developed at the Geneva Institute of New York around the mid-1930's. Similar to the Watkins and Yates varieties.

WELDER:
(No information on this grape yet other than it is a Muscadine hybrid cultivar suitable for wine and juice in Florida).

WITT:
(No other details as yet other than this variety is derived from a Concord O.P cultivar and is involved in the parentage of the Edelweiss variety).

WORDEN:
Is a 19th century cross between a Vinifera and American Labrusca species. Vigorous and hardy to -35 deg. F. (ca -32 C.), it ripens two to three weeks before Concord, requiring similar pruning and yield control. This blue-black skinned grape variety is claimed to be resistant to Downy Mildew.

YATES:
Early ripening variety developed at the Geneva Istitute of New York around the mid 1930's. Reported to be the result of a cross Mills x Ontario, similar to Watkins and Wayne.

End of French-American/American Hybrid/Native American Varieties text


END OF WINEGRAPE VARIETIES TEXT.


General Notes on grapevine cultivation.
---------------------------------------
Grapes are fairly tolerant to a wide range of soils, well-drained sandy loams being the optimum soil-type. Soil pH requirements vary according to cultivar with American varieties on the low end favoring 5.6-6.0 and V. Vinifera requiring a range of 6.5-7.0. Potassium and Nitrogen deficiencies can be remedied with Nitrogen compound addition of 50-80 lbs/acre annually, while Potassium is best applied at the rate of 250 lbs/acre before planting is commenced with later supplementary annual amounts of about 100 lbs/acre. Controllable "drip" irrigation installation is recommended for best results under arid region conditions.

Planting new vines.
------------------

One to two-year old vines with suitable grafted rootstocks are recommended as relatively risk-free. Roots can reportedly be cut back to around 8-10 inches length if absolutely necessary although this action does seem to retard growth, during the first season, in some varieties planted in cool climate regions. Dig a hole about 10 inches deep and plant the vine, spreading roots apart on a small pile of soil so that the graft union will be 4 to 6 inches above ground level when the hole is back-filled. The scion is best restricted to 2 buds (when any danger of frost attack has passed). Point the 2-budded scion spur towards the support-stake or wire so the new shoots will grow as close to the support system as possible and will be easier to tie without bending and breaking. Backfill the planting hole and pack soil firmly as you go (not compressing the soil too much). Soil may have to be added later if it subsides too much after heavy rain. In drought-prone areas it is best to cover the entire new plant with soil, or other type of covering, for several weeks to prevent drying-out. Once growth has taken hold the soil is pulled away from the plant so that the graft-joint and buds/shoots are again correctly exposed above ground level.

If using own-rooted vines, all buds should be trimmed off except for the upper two (to prevent unwanted shoots coming up from the root zone). Plant as previously, making sure the two surviving buds are well above ground surface. Cover completely with a mound of dirt, removed later when the shoots push out of the mound and are well along. Make sure a hard crust does not form on the dirt mound that would stop new shoots from emerging.

Unpruned plant growth is usually allowed for the first two years in order to avoid stress with berries expected to make their appearance, in the 3rd year, after first use of the preferred style of winter vine-pruning.

Grapevines are sensitive to too much moisture so occasional testing with a soil moisture meter (available at most local nurseries) is a good investment.

Viticulture Links/FAQ/Glossary.

Excellent sources of information for grapegrowers can be found in:

A) Ed Goists "VITFAQ/Glossary".

B) Univ. West Virginia "Growing Grapes in West Virginia"

C) Univ. Oregon Fieldgrafting (etc) infopage

D) George Mead's "GrapeGuru Homepage"

E) NCSU Muscadine Grape Diseases page

F) Western N.Y/Upper Canada Grapevine Suppliers Listing


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Acknowledgments.
---------------
The above Winegrape Glossary is a composite of information obtained from several types of resource. Among them are WWW sites, mailing lists, Usenet groups, and helpful individual email-ings, particularly from Bill Hagerman on Gulf State cultivars, Andrew Bennett, Bill Edinger, Lon J. Rombough and Steve Snyder for their personal lists of French-American and other hybrids etc, Harald Trost for additions relating to Austrian and Romanian varieties, George Gale for corrections to descriptions of some French-American hybrid varieties, details about the rare "Bacchus" American Riparia variety from Les Grosz and individual items from Robin Garr's Web-board correspondents.

Confirmatory details about some lesser french grapes were adapted from "Guide to the Wines and Vineyards of France" by Alexis Lichine, 2nd Edn, 1982. Other sources include publications by the "New York Wine and Grape Foundation", Penn Yan, N.Y. (U.S.A), newspapers such as the "New York Times", "Buffalo News" etc; and winery/nursery grape descriptions from California, Oregon, Ohio and Finger Lakes (NY) listings. My thanks to all those sources is heartfelt and sincere because, without them, none of the above would have appeared in its present form.

E-mail to: Anthony Hawkins (hawkins@alfred.edu)

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Disclaimer: The above email address is for identification purposes only. The views/opinions expressed above are solely those of the writer.